Lula, que vergonha, cara: anistiou um terrorista assassino e votou sempre contra Israel

sexta-feira, dezembro 31, 2010

Lula, que vergonha cara! No apagar das luzes do seu mandato anistiou a Cesare Battisti, um terrorista assassino, e ao longo dos dois mandatos sua política na ONU sempre condenou a Israel, o único estado democrático no Oriente Médio.

Já vai tarde, Grande Timoneiro!!! É por essas e outras que sinto vergonha de ser brasileiro...

Um website de lista de plantas: The Plant List

The Plant List is a working list of all known plant species. Version 1 aims to be comprehensive for species of Vascular plant (flowering plants, conifers, ferns and their allies) and of Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts).
Collaboration between the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden enabled the creation of The Plant List by combining multiple checklist data sets held by these institutions and other collaborators.

The Plant List provides the Accepted Latin name for most species, with links to all Synonyms by which that species has been known. It also includes Unresolved names for which the contributing data sources did not contain sufficient evidence to decide whether they were Accepted or Synonyms.

Summary Statistics

The Plant List includes 1,040,426 scientific plant names of species rank. Of these 298,900 are accepted species names.
The Plant List contains 620 plant families and 16,167 plant genera.

Pesquisa revela um sistema imunológico primitivo em bactérias

Bacteria Provide Example of One of Nature's First Immune Systems, Research Shows

ScienceDaily (Dec. 30, 2010) — Studying how bacteria incorporate foreign DNA from invading viruses into their own regulatory processes, Thomas Wood, professor in the Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering at Texas A&M University, is uncovering the secrets of one of nature's most primitive immune systems.

Single gram-negative Escherichia coli bacterium. Studying how bacteria incorporate foreign DNA from invading viruses into their own regulatory processes, Thomas Wood, professor in the Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering at Texas A&M University, is uncovering the secrets of one of nature's most primitive immune systems. (Credit: Janice Haney Carr)

His findings, which appear in Nature Communications, a multidisciplinary publication dedicated to research in all areas of the biological, physical and chemical sciences, shed light on how bacteria have throughout the course of millions of years developed resistance to antibiotics by co-opting the DNA of their natural enemies -- viruses.

The battle between bacteria and bacteria-eating viruses, Wood explains, has been going on for millions of years, with viruses attempting to replicate themselves by -- in one approach -- invading bacteria cells and integrating themselves into the chromosomes of the bacteria. When this happens a bacterium makes a copy of its chromosome, which includes the virus particle. The virus then can choose at a later time to replicate itself, killing the bacterium -- similar to a ticking time bomb, Wood says.

Read more here/Leia mais aqui: Science Daily


Cryptic prophages help bacteria cope with adverse environments

Xiaoxue Wang, Younghoon Kim, Qun Ma, Seok Hoon Hong, Karina Pokusaeva, Joseph M. Sturino & Thomas K. Wood



Corresponding author

Nature Communications 1, Article number: 147 doi:10.1038/ncomms1146

Received 26 May 2010 Accepted 25 November 2010 Published 21 December 2010

Phages are the most abundant entity in the biosphere and outnumber bacteria by a factor of 10. Phage DNA may also constitute 20% of bacterial genomes; however, its role is ill defined. Here, we explore the impact of cryptic prophages on cell physiology by precisely deleting all nine prophage elements (166 kbp) using Escherichia coli. We find that cryptic prophages contribute significantly to resistance to sub-lethal concentrations of quinolone and β-lactam antibiotics primarily through proteins that inhibit cell division (for example, KilR of rac and DicB of Qin). Moreover, the prophages are beneficial for withstanding osmotic, oxidative and acid stresses, for increasing growth, and for influencing biofilm formation. Prophage CPS-53 proteins YfdK, YfdO and YfdS enhanced resistance to oxidative stress, prophages e14, CPS-53 and CP4-57 increased resistance to acid, and e14 and rac proteins increased early biofilm formation. Therefore, cryptic prophages provide multiple benefits to the host for surviving adverse environmental conditions.

Subject terms: Biological sciences, Evolution, Microbiology, Molecular biology


Análise dentária demonstra que a extinção dos neandertais não se deu por dietas deficientes

Neandertals’ Extinction Not Caused by Deficient Diets, Tooth Analysis Shows

ScienceDaily (Dec. 30, 2010) — Researchers from George Washington University and the Smithsonian Institution have discovered evidence to debunk the theory that Neandertals' disappearance was caused in part by a deficient diet -- one that lacked variety and was overly reliant on meat. After discovering starch granules from plant food trapped in the dental calculus on 40-thousand-year-old Neandertal teeth, the scientists believe that Neandertals ate a wide variety of plants and included cooked grains as part of a more sophisticated, diverse diet similar to early modern humans.

Neandertal teeth from Shanidar cave. (Credit: George Washington University)

"Neandertals are often portrayed as very backwards or primitive," said Amanda Henry, lead researcher and a post-doctoral researcher at GW. "Now we are beginning to understand that they had some quite advanced technologies and behaviors."

Dr. Henry made this discovery together with Alison Brooks, professor of anthropology and international affairs at GW, and Dolores Piperno, a GW research professor and senior scientist and curator of archaeobotany and South American archaeology at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama.

The discovery of starch granules in the calculus on Neandertal teeth provides direct evidence that they made sophisticated, thoughtful food choices and ate more nutrient-rich plants, for example date palms, legumes and grains such as barley. Until now, anthropologists have hypothesized that Neandertals were outlived by early modern humans due in part to the former's primitive, deficient diet, with some scientists arguing Neandertals' diets were specialized for meat-eating. As such, during major climate swings Neandertals could be outcompeted by early humans who incorporated diverse plant foods available in the local environment into their diets.

Read more here/Leia mais aqui: Science Daily


Microfossils in calculus demonstrate consumption of plants and cooked foods in Neanderthal diets (Shanidar III, Iraq; Spy I and II, Belgium)

Amanda G. Henry a,b,1, Alison S. Brooks a, and Dolores R. Piperno b,c,1

-Author Affiliations

aDepartment of Anthropology, Center for Advanced Study of Hominid Paleobiology, Washington, DC 20052;
bArchaeobiology Laboratory, Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC 20013-7012; and
cSmithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Box 2072 Balboa, Panama

Contributed by Dolores R. Piperno, November 12, 2010 (sent for review July 7, 2010)


The nature and causes of the disappearance of Neanderthals and their apparent replacement by modern humans are subjects of considerable debate. Many researchers have proposed biologically or technologically mediated dietary differences between the two groups as one of the fundamental causes of Neanderthal disappearance. Some scenarios have focused on the apparent lack of plant foods in Neanderthal diets. Here we report direct evidence for Neanderthal consumption of a variety of plant foods, in the form of phytoliths and starch grains recovered from dental calculus of Neanderthal skeletons from Shanidar Cave, Iraq, and Spy Cave, Belgium. Some of the plants are typical of recent modern human diets, including date palms (Phoenix spp.), legumes, and grass seeds (Triticeae), whereas others are known to be edible but are not heavily used today. Many of the grass seed starches showed damage that is a distinctive marker of cooking. Our results indicate that in both warm eastern Mediterranean and cold northwestern European climates, and across their latitudinal range, Neanderthals made use of the diverse plant foods available in their local environment and transformed them into more easily digestible foodstuffs in part through cooking them, suggesting an overall sophistication in Neanderthal dietary regimes.


1To whom correspondence may be addressed. or

Author contributions: A.G.H., A.S.B., and D.R.P. designed research; A.G.H. performed research; A.G.H. and D.R.P. analyzed data; and A.G.H., D.R.P., and A.S.B. wrote the paper.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

This article contains supporting information online at


PDF gratuito deste artigo aqui.

O que inicia uma extinção em massa? Pesquisa mostra como espécies invasoras impedem a nova vida

What Triggers Mass Extinctions? Study Shows How Invasive Species Stop New Life

ScienceDaily (Dec. 30, 2010) — An influx of invasive species can stop the dominant natural process of new species formation and trigger mass extinction events, according to research results published December 29 in the journal PLoS ONE. The study of the collapse of Earth's marine life 378 to 375 million years ago suggests that the planet's current ecosystems, which are struggling with biodiversity loss, could meet a similar fate.

The ocean in Devonian times. A study of the collapse of Earth's marine life 378 to 375 million years ago suggests that the planet's current ecosystems, which are struggling with biodiversity loss, could meet a similar fate. (Credit: University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology)

Although Earth has experienced five major mass extinction events, the environmental crash during the Late Devonian was unlike any other in the planet's history. The actual number of extinctions wasn't higher than the natural rate of species loss, but very few new species arose.

"We refer to the Late Devonian as a mass extinction, but it was actually a biodiversity crisis," said Alycia Stigall, a scientist at Ohio University and author of the PLoS ONE paper.

"This research significantly contributes to our understanding of species invasions from a deep-time perspective," said Lisa Boush, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF)'s Division of Earth Sciences, which funded the research.

Read more here/Leia mais aqui: Science Daily


Invasive Species and Biodiversity Crises: Testing the Link in the Late Devonian

Alycia L. Stigall*

Department of Geological Sciences and OHIO Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, United States of America


During the Late Devonian Biodiversity Crisis, the primary driver of biodiversity decline was the dramatic reduction in speciation rates, not elevated extinction rates; however, the causes of speciation decline have been previously unstudied. Speciation, the formation of new species from ancestral populations, occurs by two primary allopatric mechanisms: vicariance, where the ancestral population is passively divided into two large subpopulations that later diverge and form two daughter species, and dispersal, in which a small subset of the ancestral population actively migrates then diverges to form a new species. Studies of modern and fossil clades typically document speciation by vicariance in much higher frequencies than speciation by dispersal. To assess the mechanism behind Late Devonian speciation reduction, speciation rates were calculated within stratigraphically constrained species-level phylogenetic hypotheses for three representative clades and mode of speciation at cladogenetic events was assessed across four clades in three phyla: Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca. In all cases, Devonian taxa exhibited a congruent reduction in speciation rate between the Middle Devonian pre-crisis interval and the Late Devonian crisis interval. Furthermore, speciation via vicariance is almost entirely absent during the crisis interval; most episodes of speciation during this time were due to dispersal. The shutdown of speciation by vicariance during this interval was related to widespread interbasinal species invasions. The lack of Late Devonian vicariance is diametrically opposed to the pattern observed in other geologic intervals, which suggests the loss of vicariant speciation attributable to species invasions during the Late Devonian was a causal factor in the biodiversity crisis. Similarly, modern ecosystems, in which invasive species are rampant, may be expected to exhibit similar shutdown of speciation by vicariance as an outcome of the modern biodiversity crisis.

Citation: Stigall AL (2010) Invasive Species and Biodiversity Crises: Testing the Link in the Late Devonian. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15584. 


Editor: Anna Stepanova, Paleontological Institute RAS, United States of America

Received: August 22, 2010; Accepted: November 15, 2010; Published: December 29, 2010

Copyright: © 2010 Alycia L. Stigall. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF) EAR-0922067, a grant from the American Chemical Society's Petroleum Research Fund, and Ohio University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The author has declared that no competing interests exist.

* E-mail:


Estrutura e função do spliceosome

Spliceosome Structure and Function

Cindy L. Will and Reinhard Lührmann

-Author Affiliations

Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Cellular Biochemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Göttingen, Germany



Pre-mRNA splicing is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a multimegadalton ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex comprised of five snRNPs and numerous proteins. Intricate RNA-RNA and RNP networks, which serve to align the reactive groups of the pre-mRNA for catalysis, are formed and repeatedly rearranged during spliceosome assembly and catalysis. Both the conformation and composition of the spliceosome are highly dynamic, affording the splicing machinery its accuracy and flexibility, and these remarkable dynamics are largely conserved between yeast and metazoans. Because of its dynamic and complex nature, obtaining structural information about the spliceosome represents a major challenge. Electron microscopy has revealed the general morphology of several spliceosomal complexes and their snRNP subunits, and also the spatial arrangement of some of their components. X-ray and NMR studies have provided high resolution structure information about spliceosomal proteins alone or complexed with one or more binding partners. The extensive interplay of RNA and proteins in aligning the pre-mRNA's reactive groups, and the presence of both RNA and protein at the core of the splicing machinery, suggest that the spliceosome is an RNP enzyme. However, elucidation of the precise nature of the spliceosome's active site, awaits the generation of a high-resolution structure of its RNP core.

Copyright © 2010 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved


A conversão de gene e as implicações para a evolução do genoma e do sexo

Trends Genet. 2003 Jun;19(6):330-8.

Biased gene conversion: implications for genome and sex evolution.

Marais G.

Institute of Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, Scotland, UK.


Classical genetic studies show that gene conversion can favour some alleles over others. Molecular experiments suggest that gene conversion could favour GC over AT basepairs, leading to the concept of biased gene conversion towards GC (BGC(GC)). The expected consequence of such a process is the GC-enrichment of DNA sequences under gene conversion. Recent genomic work suggests that BGC(GC) affects the base composition of yeast, invertebrate and mammalian genomes. Hypotheses for the mechanisms and evolutionary origin of such a strange phenomenon have been proposed. Most BGC(GC) events probably occur during meiosis, which has implications for our understanding of the evolution of sex and recombination.


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Baruch Haba - Sinagoga Esnoga da comunidade judaica portuguesa - Amsterdam, Holanda

quinta-feira, dezembro 30, 2010


Para, por e com Israel, sempre! Apesar de [preencher as lacunas]

Pogroms: matem os judeus - ontem e hoje

Authorized use/Uso autorizado: Yaakov Kirschen - Dry Bones Blog

1. Matem os judeus!

2. Pogroms (Ontem)

3. Matem o Estado judeu!

4. Pogroms (Hoje)


Para, por e com Israel, sempre! Apesar de [preencher as lacunas, inclusive o Brasil e sua política antissemita na ONU]



Yoely Greenfeld - Official Music Video '' Yechadshehu '' יחדשהו

quarta-feira, dezembro 29, 2010


Para, por e com Israel, sempre! Apesar de [preencher as lacunas]

Runaway -The Corrs Unplugged

Ciência made in China: falcatruas para favorecer o fato, Fato, FATO da evolução

terça-feira, dezembro 28, 2010

Science 24 December 2010: 
Vol. 330 no. 6012 pp. 1740-1741 

DOI: 10.1126/science.330.6012.1740


Image not related to this article/Imagem não relacionada com este artigo

Altering the Past: China's Faked Fossils Problem

Richard Stone

Specialists and collectors around the world have long decried the flood of sham fossils pouring out of China. But Science has learned that many composites and fakes are now finding their way into Chinese museums, especially local museums. One paleontologist estimates that more than 80% of marine reptile specimens now on display in Chinese museums have been "altered or artificially combined to varying degrees." One consequence of the fakery is an erosion of trust in museums, which are supposed to enlighten—not con—the public. Scholars, too, pay a price: They waste time sifting authentic specimens from counterfeit chaff. And a genuine blockbuster fossil can be destroyed by attempts to enhance its appeal.


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Merece um estudo científico determinar o que leva os discípulos de Darwin ao longo do tempo se utilizarem de fraudes para corroborar o fato, Fato, FATO da evolução. Se fosse apenas uma tentativa, mas são inúmeras fraudes e todas elas acolhidas pelos mandarins da Nomenklatura científica, até serem desmascarados por outros pesquisadores científicos mais sérios, dos que examinam e seguem as evidências aonde elas forem dar.

Mas, o que é uma, duas, três, quatro, cinco, seis, ad nauseam fraudes em nome de Darwin para corroborar o fato, Fato, FATO da evolução no contexto de justificação teórica?

Pobre ciência que sempre tem ao seu lado gente desta espécie: ciência e mentira não podem andar de mãos dadas!!! Nem a Grande Mídia escapa...

Se o design é ilusão, por que buscar design inteligente na natureza???

Reator imita plantas para produzir combustível solar

Redação do Site Inovação Tecnológica - 27/12/2010

Combustível solar

Um grupo de pesquisadores norte-americanos e suíços desenvolveu um reator capaz de produzir combustível líquido que é uma boa aproximação do conceito de fotossíntese artificial.

O reator produz combustível usando a luz do Sol, dióxido de carbono e água, mais um composto chamado óxido cérico. E o combustível são hidrocarbonos, similares ao petróleo e aos bio-óleos.

A distância da fotossíntese real é gigantesca, mas a ideia de imitar a forma de conseguir energia desenvolvida ao longo de milhões de anos pela natureza parece ser um caminho mais concreto do que as "formas alternativas" já desenvolvidas pelo homem. [Imagem: Chueh et al./Science]

A distância da fotossíntese real é gigantesca, mas a ideia de imitar a forma de conseguir energia desenvolvida ao longo de milhões de anos pela natureza parece ser um caminho mais concreto do que as "formas alternativas" já desenvolvidas pelo homem - tanto que os cientistas já falam na criação de folhas artificiais.

Produzir combustível líquido a partir da luz do Sol significa que a energia estará disponível a qualquer momento, e não apenas enquanto o Sol está brilhando. E ela pode ser facilmente transportada para ser utilizada em outro lugar.

Hidrocarbonos artificiais

O princípio de funcionamento do reator lembra com a forma como as plantas geram sua própria energia, aproveitando a energia do Sol para converter dióxido de carbono em polímeros à base de açúcar e compostos aromáticos.

Esses compostos de origem biológica podem ser transformados em combustível arrancando-se o oxigênio de suas formulações. É o que os cientistas acreditam que aconteça na geração natural dos combustíveis fósseis.

Isto também pode ser feito de forma artificial, por meio de processos de dissolução, fermentação e hidrogenação, gerando os bio-óleos.

Mas gerar os combustíveis líquidos a partir da luz do Sol ainda não pôde ser realizado com eficiência, e uma rota para os "biocombustíveis solares" continua sendo um caminho a ser desbravado.

Reator solar

Agora, William Chueh e seus colegas demonstraram um projeto de reator que se mostrou altamente promissor.

A luz do Sol concentrada aquece o óxido cérico - um óxido do metal de terras raras cério - a uma temperatura suficiente para arrancar alguns átomos de oxigênio de sua rede cristalina - o cério tem uma propensão natural a liberar oxigênio quando é aquecido e absorvê-lo quando voltar a resfriar.

Quando atinge uma temperatura adequada, água ou dióxido de carbono são bombeados para dentro do reator.

Sentindo a falta de seu oxigênio, arrancado pelo calor, o material prontamente arranca átomos da água ou do dióxido de carbono, de forma a repor seu oxigênio perdido.

O hidrogênio produzido pode ser usado para abastecer células a combustível, enquanto a combinação de hidrogênio e monóxido de carbono, mediante o uso de catalisadores adicionais, pode ser usada para criar uma espécie de gasolina sintética.

Quando o óxido de cério se resfria pela interação com a água ou com o gás, estes são drenados e o processo começa novamente.

Para otimizar a luz do Sol captada, a abertura por onde a luz entra é dotada de uma lente de quartzo e seguida por um sistema que a reflete múltiplas vezes, otimizando o aquecimento do óxido cérico.

Segundo os pesquisadores, os cilindros de óxido de cério que ficam dentro da cavidade suportam centenas de ciclos de aquecimento e resfriamento. E o cério é o elemento mais abundante na família das terras raras, o que significa que ele não é tão caro.

Conversão da energia solar

Embora o conceito seja promissor, o protótipo ainda é ineficiente, aproveitando apenas entre 0,7% e 0,8% da energia solar que entra no reator - as células solares de silício convertem até 20%, podendo chegar ao dobro disto com o uso deconcentradores ópticos.

Por outro lado, as maiores perdas se dão durante a manipulação da luz solar e por falta de um isolamento mais eficiente, e não pelo princípio de funcionamento baseado no aproveitamento das propriedades do óxido de cério, que é o grande avanço científico da pesquisa.

Segundo os pesquisadores, seus cálculos indicam que é possível alcançar uma eficiência de até 19% com a solução desses "problemas de engenharia".


High-Flux Solar-Driven Thermochemical Dissociation of CO2 and H2O Using Nonstoichiometric Ceria
William C. Chueh, Christoph Falter, Mandy Abbott, Danien Scipio, Philipp Furler, Sossina M. Haile, Aldo Steinfeld
24 December 2010
Vol.: 330 1797 -1801
DOI: 10.1126/science.1197834


TC: Marcelo F. Molina


Science 24 December 2010: 
Vol. 330 no. 6012 pp. 1797-1801 
DOI: 10.1126/science.1197834

High-Flux Solar-Driven Thermochemical Dissociation of CO2 and H2O Using Nonstoichiometric Ceria

William C. Chueh1, Christoph Falter2, Mandy Abbott1, Danien Scipio1, Philipp Furler2, Sossina M. Haile1,* and Aldo Steinfeld2,3,*

+Author Affiliations

1Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 309-81, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
2Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
3Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.

*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: (S.M.H.); (A.S.)


Because solar energy is available in large excess relative to current rates of energy consumption, effective conversion of this renewable yet intermittent resource into a transportable and dispatchable chemical fuel may ensure the goal of a sustainable energy future. However, low conversion efficiencies, particularly with CO2 reduction, as well as utilization of precious materials have limited the practical generation of solar fuels. By using a solar cavity-receiver reactor, we combined the oxygen uptake and release capacity of cerium oxide and facile catalysis at elevated temperatures to thermochemically dissociate CO2 and H2O, yielding CO and H2, respectively. Stable and rapid generation of fuel was demonstrated over 500 cycles. Solar-to-fuel efficiencies of 0.7 to 0.8% were achieved and shown to be largely limited by the system scale and design rather than by chemistry.

Received for publication 15 September 2010.
Accepted for publication 23 November 2010.


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Sh'ma Israel - Sarit Hadad

segunda-feira, dezembro 27, 2010


Para, por e com Israel, sempre! Apesar de [preencher as lacunas]


Yisroel Amar: uma voz promissora


Para, por e com Israel sempre! Apesar de [preencha as lacunas]

Registro Nacional de Doadores de Medula Óssea (REDOME)

Registro Nacional de Doadores de Medula Óssea (REDOME)

Quando não há um doador aparentado (um irmão ou outro parente próximo, geralmente um dos pais), a solução para o transplante de medula é procurar um doador compatível entre os grupos étnicos (brancos, negros amarelos etc.) semelhantes, mas não aparentados. Para reunir as informações (nome, endereço, resultados de exames, características genéticas) de pessoas que se dispõem a doar medula para o transplante, foi criado, em 2000, o Registro Brasileiro de Doadores de Medula Óssea (REDOME), instalado no Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA). Desta forma, com as informações do receptor, que não disponha de doador aparentado, busca-se no REDOME um doador cadastrado que seja compatível com ele e, se encontrado, articula-se a doação. 

Doação de Medula Óssea
O número de doadores voluntários tem aumentado expressivamente nos últimos anos. Em 2000, existiam apenas 12 mil inscritos. Naquele ano, dos transplantes de medula realizados, apenas 10% dos doadores eram brasileiros localizados no Redome. Agora há 1,6 milhão de doadores inscritos e o percentual subiu para 70%. O Brasil tornou-se o terceiro maior banco de dados do gênero no mundo, ficando atrás apenas dos registros dos Estados Unidos (5 milhões de doadores) e da Alemanha (3 milhões de doadores). A evolução no número de doadores deveu-se aos investimentos e campanhas de sensibilização da população, promovidas pelo Ministério da Saúde e órgãos vinculados, como o INCA. Essas campanhas mobilizaram hemocentros, laboratórios, ONGs, instituições públicas e privadas e a sociedade em geral. Desde a criação do REDOME, em 2000, o SUS já investiu R$ 673 milhões na identificação de doadores para transplante de medula óssea. Os gastos crescerem 4.308,51% de 2001 a 2009. 

Como é feito o acesso ao REDOME?
O processo é simples e totalmente informatizado. O médico responsável inscreve as informações do paciente, incluindo o resultado do exame de histocompatibilidade – HLA - (exame que identifica as características genéticas de cada indivíduo), no sistema do REREME - Registro nacional de receptores de medula óssea. Imediatamente, a busca é iniciada. Quando são identificados possíveis doadores compatíveis, a informação é logo transmitida ao médico, que junto com a equipe do REDOME, analisa os melhores doadores, faz a escolha, e é dado início aos procedimentos de doação. O doador é, então, convocado a realizar os testes confirmatórios e fazer a doação. A retirada das células para a doação é feita no hospital habilitado mais próximo da residência do doador. Assim que retiradas, as células são transportadas até o centro onde o será feito o transplante.

Quantos hospitais fazem o transplante no Brasil?
São 61 centros para transplantes de medula óssea e 17 para transplantes com doadores não-aparentados: Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Real Hospital Português de Beneficência em Pernambuco, Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho (UFRJ), INCA, Hospital das Clínicas Porto Alegre, Casa de Saúde Santa Marcelina, Boldrini, GRAAC, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Hospital São Paulo, Hospital de Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (USP), Hospital AC Camargo, Fundação E. J. Zerbini, Hospital de Clínicas da UNICAMP, Hospital Amaral Carvalho, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein e Hospital Sírio Libanês.

Quantos transplantes o INCA faz por mês?
A média é de dois transplantes com doadores não-aparentados. Mensalmente são realizados sete transplantes do tipo autólogo (de uma pessoa para si mesma) e com doador aparentado. 

O que a população pode fazer para ajudar os pacientes?
Todo mundo pode ajudar. Para isso é preciso ter entre 18 e 55 anos de idade e gozar de boa saúde. Para se cadastrar, o candidato a doador deverá procurar o hemocentro mais próximo de sua casa, onde será agendada uma entrevista para esclarecer dúvidas a respeito das doações e, em seguida, será feita a coleta de uma amostra de sangue (10 ml) para a tipagem de HLA (características genéticas importantes para a seleção de um doador). Os dados do doador são inseridos no cadastro do REDOME e, sempre que surgir um novo paciente, a compatibilidade será verificada. Uma vez confirmada, o doador será consultado para decidir quanto à doação. O transplante de medula óssea é um procedimento seguro, realizado em ambiente cirúrgico, feito sob anestesia geral, e requer internação de, no mínimo, 24 horas. Saiba mais

Importante: um doador de medula óssea deve manter seu cadastro atualizado sempre que possível. Caso haja alguma mudança, a pessoa deve entrar em contato com o REDOME.

Rua do Resende, 195, térreo - Centro - Rio de Janeiro / RJ
Telefone do REDOME.: (21) 3207-5238 
Telefone do REREME.: (21) 3207-5233 / e-mail:

A ciência revela a coerência de um universo planejado

domingo, dezembro 26, 2010

The coherence of an engineered world

Author(s): D. Halsmer, J. Asper, N. Roman & T. Todd


Normally, information from scientific discoveries is funnelled into the development of engineered products that benefit humanity. 

But recently a strange turnabout in the flow of practical information has occurred. 

Concepts from the field of engineering have been found extremely useful in areas of science. 

From the very large aspects of the universe (i.e. big bang cosmology and galactic and stellar evolution) to the very small aspects (i.e. the fitness of the chemical elements and the coding of DNA for life), the cosmos is so readily and profitably reverse-engineered by scientists and engineers as to make a compelling argument that it was engineered in the first place.

The linking of extraordinarily complex, but stable functional structures with the production of value provides the strong impression of a calculating intentionality, which is able to operate in a transcendent fashion.

The most coherent view of the universe is that of a system of subsystems that efficiently interact to prepare for, develop, and support advanced life, subject to various physical constraints.

The quest for understanding our universe as a whole benefits from the integration of knowledge from all areas of study, including those that consider questions of purpose, such as design engineering.

The synthesis of this knowledge that provides the most satisfying answers regarding human experience is one that admits the recognition of purpose and the existence of an (as yet, not-wellunderstood) engineering influence.


cosmology, reverse-engineering, anthropic principle, engineering.

1 Introduction:

Throughout the ages, many great minds have expressed a profound appreciation for the incredible ingenuity of natural systems. 

Leonardo da Vinci, from his in- ...

Pages: 15
Size: 354 kb
Paper DOI: 10.2495/DN080321


Método estatístico para revelar as relações forma-função em redes biológicas

sexta-feira, dezembro 24, 2010

Statistical method for revealing form-function relations in biological networks

Andrew Mugler a,1,2, Boris Grinshpun b, Riley Franks c, and Chris H. Wiggins b,d

+Author Affiliations

aDepartment of Physics;
bDepartment of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics;
dCenter for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; and
cDepartment of Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125

↵2Present address: Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMOLF), Science Park 104, 1098 XG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Edited* by Leslie Greengard, New York University, New York, NY, and approved November 12, 2010 (received for review June 25, 2010)


Over the past decade, a number of researchers in systems biology have sought to relate the function of biological systems to their network-level descriptions—lists of the most important players and the pairwise interactions between them. Both for large networks (in which statistical analysis is often framed in terms of the abundance of repeated small subgraphs) and for small networks which can be analyzed in greater detail (or even synthesized in vivo and subjected to experiment), revealing the relationship between the topology of small subgraphs and their biological function has been a central goal. We here seek to pose this revelation as a statistical task, illustrated using a particular setup which has been constructed experimentally and for which parameterized models of transcriptional regulation have been studied extensively. The question “how does function follow form” is here mathematized by identifying which topological attributes correlate with the diverse possible information-processing tasks which a transcriptional regulatory network can realize. The resulting method reveals one form-function relationship which had earlier been predicted based on analytic results, and reveals a second for which we can provide an analytic interpretation. Resulting source code is distributed via

form and function, information theory, dynamical systems, systems biology


1To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail:

Author contributions: A.M., B.G., R.F., and C.H.W. designed research; A.M., B.G., and R.F. performed research; A.M. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; A.M. and B.G. analyzed data; and A.M. and C.H.W. wrote the paper.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

*This Direct Submission article had a prearranged editor.

This article contains supporting information online at

†We use ⇾ to indicate up-regulation, ⊣ to indicate down-regulation, and → to indicate regulation whose sign is not specified; additionally we use ↝ to indicate inhibition by a small molecule.


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