Cérebro humano mais complexo do que uma galáxia!!!

terça-feira, agosto 23, 2016

Human high intelligence is involved in spectral redshift of biophotonic activities in the brain

Zhuo Wang a,b, Niting Wang a,b, Zehua Li a,b, Fangyan Xiao a,c, and Jiapei Dai a,b,c,1

Author Affiliations

a Wuhan Institute for Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China;

b Department of Neurobiology, The College of Life Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China;

c Chinese Brain Bank Center, Wuhan 430074, China

Edited by Michael A. Persinger, Laurentian University, Canada, and accepted by Editorial Board Member Marlene Behrmann May 20, 2016 (received for review March 24, 2016)

Source/Fonte: Daily Galaxy 


It is still unclear why human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth and which brain properties might explain the differences. The recent studies have demonstrated that biophotons may play a key role in neural information processing and encoding and that biophotons may be involved in quantum brain mechanism; however, the importance of biophotons in relation to animal intelligence, including that of human beings, is not clear. Here, we have provided experimental evidence that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in brain slices present a spectral redshift feature from animals (bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, which may be a key biophysical basis for explaining why human beings hold higher intelligence than that of other animals.


Human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth; however, it is still unclear which brain properties might explain the underlying mechanisms. The brain is a major energy-consuming organ compared with other organs. Neural signal communications and information processing in neural circuits play an important role in the realization of various neural functions, whereas improvement in cognitive function is driven by the need for more effective communication that requires less energy. Combining the ultraweak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) with the biophoton spectral analysis device (BSAD), we found that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in the brain, which has recently been demonstrated as a novel neural signal communication mechanism, present a spectral redshift from animals (in order of bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, even up to a near-infrared wavelength (∼865 nm) in the human brain. This brain property may be a key biophysical basis for explaining high intelligence in humans because biophoton spectral redshift could be a more economical and effective measure of biophotonic signal communications and information processing in the human brain.

intelligence ultraweak photon emissions biophoton imaging glutamate brain slices


1 To whom correspondence should be addressed. Email: jdai@mail.scuec.edu.cn.

Author contributions: J.D. designed research; Z.W., N.W., F.X., and J.D. performed research; Z.W. and J.D. analyzed data; Z.L. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; and J.D. wrote the paper.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. M.A.P. is a Guest Editor invited by the Editorial Board.

This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1604855113/-/DCSupplemental.


Cartilha de astrobiologia v2.0

The Astrobiology Primer v2.0

To cite this article:

Domagal-Goldman Shawn D., Wright Katherine E., Adamala Katarzyna, Arina de la Rubia Leigh, Bond Jade, Dartnell Lewis R., Goldman Aaron D., Lynch Kennda, Naud Marie-Eve, Paulino-Lima Ivan G., Singer Kelsi, Walter-Antonio Marina, Abrevaya Ximena C., Anderson Rika, Arney Giada, Atri Dimitra, Azúa-Bustos Armando, Bowman Jeff S., Brazelton William J., Brennecka Gregory A., Carns Regina, Chopra Aditya, Colangelo-Lillis Jesse, Crockett Christopher J., DeMarines Julia, Frank Elizabeth A., Frantz Carie, de la Fuente Eduardo, Galante Douglas, Glass Jennifer, Gleeson Damhnait, Glein Christopher R., Goldblatt Colin, Horak Rachel, Horodyskyj Lev, Kaçar Betül, Kereszturi Akos, Knowles Emily, Mayeur Paul, McGlynn Shawn, Miguel Yamila, Montgomery Michelle, Neish Catherine, Noack Lena, Rugheimer Sarah, Stüeken Eva E., Tamez-Hidalgo Paulina, Walker Sara Imari, and Wong Teresa. 

Astrobiology. August 2016, 16(8): 561-653. doi: 10.1089/ast.2015.1460.

Published in Volume: 16 Issue 8: August 1, 2016

Author information

Co-Lead Editors Shawn D. Domagal-Goldman and Katherine E. Wright Chapter Editors Shawn D. Domagal-Goldman (Co-Lead Editor, Co-Editor Chapter 1, and Author)1,2,* Katherine E. Wright (Co-Lead Editor, Co-Editor Chapter 1, and Author)3,4,* Katarzyna Adamala (Co-Editor Chapter 3 and Author)5 Leigh Arina de la Rubia (Editor Chapter 9 and Author)6 Jade Bond (Co-Editor Chapter 3 and Author)7 Lewis R. Dartnell (Co-Editor Chapter 7 and Author)8 Aaron D. Goldman (Editor Chapter 2 and Author)9 Kennda Lynch (Co-Editor Chapter 5 and Author)10 Marie-Eve Naud (Co-Editor Chapter 7 and Author)11 Ivan G. Paulino-Lima (Editor Chapter 8 and Author)12,13 Kelsi Singer (Co-Editor Chapter 5, Editor Chapter 6, and Author)14 Marina Walter-Antonio (Editor Chapter 4 and Author)15 Authors Ximena C. Abrevaya,16 Rika Anderson,17 Giada Arney,18 Dimitra Atri,13 Armando Azúa-Bustos,13,19 Jeff S. Bowman,20 William J. Brazelton,21 Gregory A. Brennecka,22 Regina Carns,23 Aditya Chopra,24 Jesse Colangelo-Lillis,25 Christopher J. Crockett,26 Julia DeMarines,13 Elizabeth A. Frank,27 Carie Frantz,28 Eduardo de la Fuente,29 Douglas Galante,30 Jennifer Glass,31 Damhnait Gleeson,32 Christopher R. Glein,33 Colin Goldblatt,34 Rachel Horak,35 Lev Horodyskyj,36 Betül Kaçar,37 Akos Kereszturi,38 Emily Knowles,39 Paul Mayeur,40 Shawn McGlynn,41 Yamila Miguel,42 Michelle Montgomery,43 Catherine Neish,44 Lena Noack,45 Sarah Rugheimer,46,47 Eva E. Stüeken,48,49 Paulina Tamez-Hidalgo,50 Sara Imari Walker,13,51 and Teresa Wong52

1 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.

2 Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, Washington, USA.

3 University of Colorado at Boulder, Colorado, USA.

4 Present address: UK Space Agency, UK.

5 Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

6 Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

7 Department of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

8 University of Westminster, London, UK.

9 Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, USA.

10 Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA.

11 Institute for research on exoplanets (iREx), Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.

12 Universities Space Research Association, Mountain View, California, USA.

13 Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, Seattle, Washington, USA.

14 Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

15 Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

16 Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA—CONICET, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

17 Department of Biology, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, USA.

18 University of Washington Astronomy Department and Astrobiology Program, Seattle, Washington, USA.

19 Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

20 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA.

21 Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

22 Institut für Planetologie, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

23 Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

24 Planetary Science Institute, Research School of Earth Sciences, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

25 Earth and Planetary Science, McGill University, and the McGill Space Institute, Montréal, Canada.

26 Society for Science & the Public, Washington, DC, USA.

27 Carnegie Institute for Science, Washington, DC, USA.

28 Department of Geosciences, Weber State University, Ogden, Utah, USA.

29 IAM-Departamento de Fisica, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México.

30 Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil.

31 School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

32 Science Foundation Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

33 Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

34 School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.

35 American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA.

36 Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

37 Harvard University, Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

38 Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.

39 Johnson & Wales University, Denver, Colorado, USA.

40 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA.

41 Earth Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

42 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, Nice, France.

43 University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.

44 Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

45 Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels, Belgium.

46 Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

47 University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, UK.

48 University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

49 University of California, Riverside, California, USA.

50 Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark.

51 School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

52 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

*These two authors contributed equally to the work.

Address correspondence to:

Shawn D. Domagal-Goldman

Planetary Environments Laboratory
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
8800 Greenbelt Road
Mail Stop 699.0
Washington, MD 20771

E-mail: shawn.goldman@nasa.gov

Submitted 23 December 2015 Accepted 6 June 2016

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction—What Is Astrobiology?

Chapter 2. What Is Life?

Chapter 3. How Did Earth and Its Biosphere Originate?

Chapter 4. How Have Earth and Its Biosphere Evolved?

Chapter 5. What Does Life on Earth Tell Us about Habitability?

Chapter 6. What Is Known about Potentially Habitable Worlds beyond Earth?

Chapter 7. What Are the Signs of Life (Biosignatures) That We Could Use to Look for Life beyond Earth?

Chapter 8. What Relevance Does Astrobiology Have to the Future of Life on This Planet?

Chapter 9. Resources



Abbreviations List

FREE PDF GRATIS: Astrobiology 

Uma perspectiva na busca de inteligência extraterrestre

Alien Mindscapes—A Perspective on the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

To cite this article: Cabrol Nathalie A.. Astrobiology. July 2016, ahead of print. 

doi: 10.1089/ast.2016.1536Online Ahead of Print: July 6, 2016

Author information

Nathalie A. Cabrol
Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, Mountain View, California.

Address correspondence to:

Dr. Nathalie A. Cabrol
SETI Institute Carl Sagan Center
189 N Bernardo Ave. #200
Mountain View, CA 94043

E-mail: ncabrol@seti.org

Submitted 14 May 2016 Accepted 23 May 2016 


Advances in planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, and life and cognitive sciences, combined with developments in communication theory, bioneural computing, machine learning, and big data analysis, create new opportunities to explore the probabilistic nature of alien life. Brought together in a multidisciplinary approach, they have the potential to support an integrated and expanded Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI1), a search that includes looking for life as we do not know it. This approach will augment the odds of detecting a signal by broadening our understanding of the evolutionary and systemic components in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI), provide more targets for radio and optical SETI, and identify new ways of decoding and coding messages using universal markers. Key Words: SETI—Astrobiology—Coevolution of Earth and life—Planetary habitability and biosignatures. Astrobiology 16, xxx–xxx.


I am particularly grateful to those who, through conversations, constructive criticism, suggestions, comments, and reviews at various stages of development have helped me articulate this perspective. Special thanks to Bill Diamond, David Darling, Margaret Race, Mark Showalter, and Jill Tarter for their inputs. Also thank you to Maggie Turnbull and Laurance Doyle for sharing thoughts over the past few months.

Author Disclosure Statement

The author declares no conflict of interest.

FREE PDF GRATIS: Astrobiology

Genes encontram seus 'parceiros' sem precisar de intermediários

segunda-feira, agosto 22, 2016

Evidence of protein-free homology recognition in magnetic bead force–extension experiments

D. J. (O’) Lee, C. Danilowicz, C. Rochester, A. A. Kornyshev, M. Prentiss

Published 20 July 2016.DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0186


Earlier theoretical studies have proposed that the homology-dependent pairing of large tracts of dsDNA may be due to physical interactions between homologous regions. Such interactions could contribute to the sequence-dependent pairing of chromosome regions that may occur in the presence or the absence of double-strand breaks. Several experiments have indicated the recognition of homologous sequences in pure electrolytic solutions without proteins. Here, we report single-molecule force experiments with a designed 60 kb long dsDNA construct; one end attached to a solid surface and the other end to a magnetic bead. The 60 kb constructs contain two 10 kb long homologous tracts oriented head to head, so that their sequences match if the two tracts fold on each other. The distance between the bead and the surface is measured as a function of the force applied to the bead. At low forces, the construct molecules extend substantially less than normal, control dsDNA, indicating the existence of preferential interaction between the homologous regions. The force increase causes no abrupt but continuous unfolding of the paired homologous regions. Simple semi-phenomenological models of the unfolding mechanics are proposed, and their predictions are compared with the data.

Data accessibility

Data supporting this article are included in the electronic supplementary material. S1 contains additional supporting experimental data; S2 contains details on the background of Model 1; S3 discusses the approximations behind the equations for Lloop; S4 presents plots of the free energy for model 1 as well as a plot showing how Lloop varies with the parameter b in that model; S5 shows the fitted the values of the model parameters; S6 specifies exactly the DNA text that was added to the end of the λ DNA in the constructs.

Authors' contributions

D.J.(O’)L. had a major role in the writing of the paper and development of the theoretical models, as well as helping with the data analysis and curve fitting. C.D. designed and performed the experiments. C.R. helped with the data analysis and performed the curve fitting. A.A.K. participated in the development of the theory, discussion of experimental results and writing of the paper. M.P. designed the experiments, analysed data, as well as participated in writing the paper and the development of the theory.

Competing interests

The authors have no competing interests.


This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health to M.P. (grant no. R01 GM044794), the Human Frontier Science Program to A.A.K. (grant no. RG0049/2010-C102) and the grant of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, EP/H010106/1.


The authors acknowledge useful discussions with Nancy Kleckner and Tim Albrecht.

Received March 15, 2016. Accepted June 17, 2016. 

© 2016 The Authors.

Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.


Protein Data Bank: uma visão estrutural da biologia

A Structural View of Biology

This resource is powered by the Protein Data Bank archive-information about the 3D shapes of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies that helps students and researchers understand all aspects of biomedicine and agriculture, from protein synthesis to health and disease.

As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data.

The RCSB PDB builds upon the data by creating tools and resources for research and education in molecular biology, structural biology, computational biology, and beyond.

A hipótese de descendência comum com modificação foi para a lata do lixo da História da Ciência!!!

domingo, agosto 21, 2016

FEATURE 17 August 2016

Life may have emerged not once, but many times on Earth

Far from being a miracle that happened just once in 4 billion years, life's beginnings could have been so commonplace that it began many times over

Graham Carter

By Penny Sarchet

IN 4.5 billion years of Earthly history, life as we know it arose just once. Every living thing on our planet shares the same chemistry, and can be traced back to “LUCA”, the last universal common ancestor. So we assume that life must have been really hard to get going, only arising when a nigh-on-impossible set of circumstances combine.

Or was it? Simple experiments by biologists aiming to recreate life’s earliest moments are challenging that assumption. Life, it seems, is a matter of basic chemistry – no magic required, no rare ingredients, no bolt from the blue.

And that suggests an even more intriguing possibility. Rather than springing into existence just once in some chemically blessed primordial pond, life may have had many origins. It could have got going over and over again in many different forms for hundreds of thousands of years, only becoming what we see today when everything else was wiped out it in Earth’s first ever mass extinction. In its earliest days on the planet, life as we know it might not have been alone.

Just to be clear, what we are talking about came long before animals or plants or even microbes. We are going right back to the start, when the only things fitting the description of “life” were little more than molecular machines. Even then, having stripped away bodies, organs and cells and reduced everything down to the essential reactions, things appear devilishly complex. At a bare minimum, life needs some kind of ...


A 'codificação genética' reconsiderada: uma análise de seu uso atual

sexta-feira, agosto 19, 2016

‘Genetic Coding’ Reconsidered: An Analysis of Actual Usage

Ulrich E. Stegmann

- Author Affiliations

School of Divinity History and Philosophy University of Aberdeen Aberdeen, UK



This article reconsiders the theoretical role of the genetic code. By drawing on published and unpublished sources from the 1950s, I analyse how the code metaphor was actually employed by the scientists who first promoted its use. The analysis shows that the term ‘code’ picked out mechanism sketches, consisting of more or less detailed descriptions of ordinary molecular components, processes, and structural properties of the mechanism of protein synthesis. The sketches provided how-possibly explanations for the ordering of amino acids by nucleic acids (the ‘coding problem’). I argue that employing the code metaphor was justified in virtue of its descriptive-denotational and explanatory roles, and because it highlighted a similarity with conventional codes that was particularly salient at the time.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of British Society for the Philosophy of Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Físicos descobrem 'aparente escape das leis da termodinâmica "

Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

Steven J. Schowalter, Alexander J. Dunning, Kuang Chen, Prateek Puri, Christian Schneider & Eric R. Hudson

Nature Communications 7, Article number: 12448 (2016)

Download Citation

Atomic and molecular collision processesUltracold gases

Received: 26 January 2016 Accepted: 05 July 2016 Published online: 11 August 2016


Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to 10 barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behaviour as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behaviour leads to the limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the atomic level.


This work was supported by National Science Foundation (PHY-1205311) and Army Research Office (W911NF-15-1-0121 and W911NF-14-1-0378) grants.

Author information


Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA

Steven J. Schowalter, Alexander J. Dunning, Kuang Chen, Prateek Puri, Christian Schneider & Eric R. Hudson


E.R.H. and K.C. conceived the theoretical concept. E.R.H., S.J.S. and A.J.D. conceived the experiment and measurement protocol. C.S. and S.J.S. built the apparatus. S.J.S., A.J.D. and P.P. acquired and analysed all of the data. K.C. developed the MD software and A.J.D. performed all of the simulations presented. S.J.S. wrote the manuscript and S.J.S., A.J.D. and C.S. prepared all of the figures with input from all authors.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Steven J. Schowalter.

FREE PDF GRATIS: Nature Communications Sup. Info

O argumento de que não existem teorias alternativas

The No Alternatives Argument

Richard Dawid

Department of Philosophy and Institute Vienna Circle University of Vienna Universitätsstr. 7 1010 Vienna Austria


Stephan Hartmann

Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München Ludwigstr. 31 80539 München Germany


Jan Sprenger

- Author Affiliations

Tilburg Center for Logic and Philosophy of Science Tilburg University 5000 LE Tilburg The Netherlands



Scientific theories are hard to find, and once scientists have found a theory, H, they often believe that there are not many distinct alternatives to H. But is this belief justified? What should scientists believe about the number of alternatives to H, and how should they change these beliefs in the light of new evidence? These are some of the questions that we will address in this article. We also ask under which conditions failure to find an alternative to H confirms the theory in question. This kind of reasoning (which we call the ‘no alternatives argument’) is frequently used in science and therefore deserves a careful philosophical analysis.


Salvando a ciência!!!

Saving Science 

Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing. To save the enterprise, scientists must come out of the lab and into the real world.

Daniel Sarewitz

Science, pride of modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in deep trouble. Stoked by fifty years of growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out millions of articles in thousands of journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. But much of this supposed knowledge is turning out to be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong. From metastatic cancer to climate change to growth economics to dietary standards, science that is supposed to yield clarity and solutions is in many instances leading instead to contradiction, controversy, and confusion. Along the way it is also undermining the four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of independently verifiable truths. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to escape, it will have to abdicate its protected political status and embrace both its limits and its accountability to the rest of society.

The story of how things got to this state is difficult to unravel, in no small part because the scientific enterprise is so well-defended by walls of hype, myth, and denial. But much of the problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon which rests the political and cultural power of science. This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to embark on an extended period of extraordinary scientific, technological, and economic growth. It goes like this:

Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown.

So deeply embedded in our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of common sense, this powerful vision of science comes from Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. engineer who had been the architect of the nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and helped to advance microwave radar, mass production of antibiotics, and other technologies crucial to the Allied victory. He became justly famous in the process. Featured on the cover of Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of Physics.” As the war drew to a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to a new era of peace, where top academic scientists would continue to receive the robust government funding they had grown accustomed to since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and application, not to mention discipline and secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier, by pursuing “research in the purest realms of science” scientists would build the foundation for “new products and new processes” to deliver health, full employment, and military security to the nation.

From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to deceive than a seductive manipulation, for political aims, of widely held beliefs about the purity of science. Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for generous and long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to $38 billion in 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. More impressive still was the increase for basic research at universities and colleges, which rose from $82 million to $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. By contrast, government spending on more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion. The power of the lie was palpable: “the free play of free intellects” would provide the knowledge that the nation needed to confront the challenges of the future.

To go along with all that money, the beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for public spending with little public accountability. Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to scientists, but only scientists could evaluate the research they were doing. Outside efforts to guide the course of science would only interfere with its free and unpredictable advance.

Read more here/Leia mais aqui: The New Atlantis

Nós somos todos diferentes no DNA: análise da variação genética de codificação de proteínas

quinta-feira, agosto 18, 2016

Analysis of protein-coding genetic variation in 60,706 humans

Monkol Lek, Konrad J. Karczewski, Eric V. Minikel, Kaitlin E. Samocha, Eric Banks, Timothy Fennell, Anne H. O’Donnell-Luria, James S. Ware, Andrew J. Hill, Beryl B. Cummings, Taru Tukiainen, Daniel P. Birnbaum, Jack A. Kosmicki, Laramie E. Duncan, Karol Estrada, Fengmei Zhao, James Zou, Emma Pierce-Hoffman, Joanne Berghout, David N. Cooper, Nicole Deflaux, Mark DePristo, Ron Do, Jason Flannick, Menachem Fromer et al.

Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author

Nature 536, 285–291 (18 August 2016) doi:10.1038/nature19057

Received 19 October 2015 Accepted 24 June 2016 Published online 17 August 2016

Source/Fonte: STAT


Abstract• Introduction• The ExAC data set• Patterns of protein-coding variation• Inferring variant deleteriousness and gene constraint• ExAC improves variant interpretation in rare disease• Effect of rare protein-truncating variants• Discussion• Methods• References• Acknowledgements• Author information• Extended data figures and tables• Supplementary information

Large-scale reference data sets of human genetic variation are critical for the medical and functional interpretation of DNA sequence changes. Here we describe the aggregation and analysis of high-quality exome (protein-coding region) DNA sequence data for 60,706 individuals of diverse ancestries generated as part of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). This catalogue of human genetic diversity contains an average of one variant every eight bases of the exome, and provides direct evidence for the presence of widespread mutational recurrence. We have used this catalogue to calculate objective metrics of pathogenicity for sequence variants, and to identify genes subject to strong selection against various classes of mutation; identifying 3,230 genes with near-complete depletion of predicted protein-truncating variants, with 72% of these genes having no currently established human disease phenotype. Finally, we demonstrate that these data can be used for the efficient filtering of candidate disease-causing variants, and for the discovery of human ‘knockout’ variants in protein-coding genes.

Subject terms: Genomics Medical genetics



A assimetria quântica entre o tempo e o espaço

Quantum asymmetry between time and space

Joan A. Vaccaro

Published 20 January 2016. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2015.0670

Prof. Joan Vaccaro - Source/Fonte: Griffith University


An asymmetry exists between time and space in the sense that physical systems inevitably evolve over time, whereas there is no corresponding ubiquitous translation over space. The asymmetry, which is presumed to be elemental, is represented by equations of motion and conservation laws that operate differently over time and space. If, however, the asymmetry was found to be due to deeper causes, this conventional view of time evolution would need reworking. Here we show, using a sum-over-paths formalism, that a violation of time reversal (T) symmetry might be such a cause. If T symmetry is obeyed, then the formalism treats time and space symmetrically such that states of matter are localized both in space and in time. In this case, equations of motion and conservation laws are undefined or inapplicable. However, if T symmetry is violated, then the same sum over paths formalism yields states that are localized in space and distributed without bound over time, creating an asymmetry between time and space. Moreover, the states satisfy an equation of motion (the Schrödinger equation) and conservation laws apply. This suggests that the time–space asymmetry is not elemental as currently presumed, and that T violation may have a deep connection with time evolution.

Data accessibility

Electronic supplementary material is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2015.0670 or via http://rspa.royalsocietypublishing.org.

Competing interests

I have no competing interests.


I did not receive external funding for the research reported here.


I thank D.T. Pegg, H.M. Wiseman, M.J. Hall and T. Croucher for helpful discussions.

Received September 28, 2015. Accepted December 23, 2015.

© 2016 The Authors.

Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.



Ultra-alta resolução de imagens em 3D de células inteiras

quarta-feira, agosto 17, 2016

Ultra-High Resolution 3D Imaging of Whole Cells

Fang Huang 14, George Sirinakis 14, Edward S. Allgeyer, Lena K. Schroeder, Whitney C. Duim, Emil B. Kromann, Thomy Phan, Felix E. Rivera-Molina, Jordan R. Myers, Irnov Irnov, Mark Lessard, Yongdeng Zhang, Mary Ann Handel, Christine Jacobs-Wagner, C. Patrick Lusk, James E. Rothman, Derek Toomre, Martin J. Booth, Joerg Bewersdorf

14Co-first author

Open Access

Open access funded by Wellcome Trust


• Whole-cell 4Pi single-molecule switching nanoscopy allows 10- to 20-nm 3D resolution

• Refined hardware and new data analysis allow imaging of cells as thick as ∼10 μm

• Using structure-averaging, the 3D shape of a bacteriophage can be resolved

• Wide applicability across diverse research fields is demonstrated


Fluorescence nanoscopy, or super-resolution microscopy, has become an important tool in cell biological research. However, because of its usually inferior resolution in the depth direction (50–80 nm) and rapidly deteriorating resolution in thick samples, its practical biological application has been effectively limited to two dimensions and thin samples. Here, we present the development of whole-cell 4Pi single-molecule switching nanoscopy (W-4PiSMSN), an optical nanoscope that allows imaging of three-dimensional (3D) structures at 10- to 20-nm resolution throughout entire mammalian cells. We demonstrate the wide applicability of W-4PiSMSN across diverse research fields by imaging complex molecular architectures ranging from bacteriophages to nuclear pores, cilia, and synaptonemal complexes in large 3D cellular volumes.

Received: February 29, 2016; Received in revised form: May 2, 2016; Accepted: June 3, 2016; Published: July 7, 2016

© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Um passo além de um ribossomo: O núcleo antigo anaeróbico do LUCA.

terça-feira, agosto 16, 2016

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics

Volume 1857, Issue 8, August 2016, Pages 1027–1038

EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference

One step beyond a ribosome: The ancient anaerobic core

Filipa L. Sousa, , Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, William F. Martin

Institute for Molecular Evolution, Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf, Universitätstrasse 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany

Received 25 November 2015, Revised 3 February 2016, Accepted 5 April 2016, Available online 2 May 2016

Open Access funded by European Research Council

Under a Creative Commons license

Source/Fonte: Pulse Headlines


• Life arose without oxygen, the universal ancestor (Luca) was an anaerobe.

• We used phylogenetic and physiological criteria to identify genes present in Luca.

• An ancient core of 65 metabolic genes shed light on Luca's anaerobic lifestyle.

• Ancient core genes are most widespread among modern methanogens and clostridia.

• The data implicate a major role for methyl groups in Luca's anaerobic metabolism.


Life arose in a world without oxygen and the first organisms were anaerobes. Here we investigate the gene repertoire of the prokaryote common ancestor, estimating which genes it contained and to which lineages of modern prokaryotes it was most similar in terms of gene content. Using a phylogenetic approach we found that among trees for all 8779 protein families shared between 134 archaea and 1847 bacterial genomes, only 1045 have sequences from at least two bacterial and two archaeal groups and retain the ancestral archaeal–bacterial split. Among those, the genes shared by anaerobes were identified as candidate genes for the prokaryote common ancestor, which lived in anaerobic environments. We find that these anaerobic prokaryote common ancestor genes are today most frequently distributed among methanogens and clostridia, strict anaerobes that live from low free energy changes near the thermodynamic limit of life. The anaerobic families encompass genes for bifunctional acetyl-CoA-synthase/CO-dehydrogenase, heterodisulfide reductase subunits C and A, ferredoxins, and several subunits of the Mrp-antiporter/hydrogenase family, in addition to numerous S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) dependent methyltransferases. The data indicate a major role for methyl groups in the metabolism of the prokaryote common ancestor. The data furthermore indicate that the prokaryote ancestor possessed a rotor stator ATP synthase, but lacked cytochromes and quinones as well as identifiable redox-dependent ion pumping complexes. The prokaryote ancestor did possess, however, an Mrp-type H+/Na+ antiporter complex, capable of transducing geochemical pH gradients into biologically more stable Na+-gradients. The findings implicate a hydrothermal, autotrophic, and methyl-dependent origin of life. 

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2–6, 2016’, edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.


HCO, heme–copper oxygen reductase, cytochrome c oxidase, complex IV; LGT, lateral gene transfer; NOR, nitric oxide reductase; WL, Wood–Ljungdahl; SAM, S-adenosyl methionine; SLP, substrate level phosphorylation


Early evolution; Geochemistry; Methanogens; Acetogens; Anaerobes; Autotrophy