A mão do Homo naledi

sábado, outubro 10, 2015

The hand of Homo naledi

Tracy L. Kivell, Andrew S. Deane, Matthew W. Tocheri, Caley M. Orr, Peter Schmid, John Hawks, Lee R. Berger & Steven E. Churchill

Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author

Nature Communications 6, Article number: 8431 doi:10.1038/ncomms9431

Received 26 January 2015 Accepted 20 August 2015 Published 06 October 2015


A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi.

Subject terms: Biological sciences Evolution Palaeontology

FREE PDF GRATIS: Nature Communications
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Desajeitada, mas rápida: Plasticidade da interação ultrarrápida entre nucleoporinas e receptores de transporte nuclear

Plasticity of an Ultrafast Interaction between Nucleoporins and Nuclear Transport Receptors

Sigrid Milles 8, Davide Mercadante 8, Iker Valle Aramburu 8, Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Niccolò Banterle, Christine Koehler, Swati Tyagi, Jane Clarke, Sarah L. Shammas, Martin Blackledge correspondence email, Frauke Gräter correspondence email, Edward A. Lemke correspondence email

8 Co-first author

Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof

Open Access


•Integrative structural biology reveals the basis of rapid nuclear transport

•Transient binding of disordered nucleoporins leaves their plasticity unaffected

•Multiple minimalistic low-affinity binding motifs create a polyvalent complex

•A highly reactive and dynamic surface permits an ultrafast binding mechanism


The mechanisms by which intrinsically disordered proteins engage in rapid and highly selective binding is a subject of considerable interest and represents a central paradigm to nuclear pore complex (NPC) function, where nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) move through the NPC by binding disordered phenylalanine-glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups). Combining single-molecule fluorescence, molecular simulations, and nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that a rapidly fluctuating FG-Nup populates an ensemble of conformations that are prone to bind NTRs with near diffusion-limited on rates, as shown by stopped-flow kinetic measurements. This is achieved using multiple, minimalistic, low-affinity binding motifs that are in rapid exchange when engaging with the NTR, allowing the FG-Nup to maintain an unexpectedly high plasticity in its bound state. We propose that these exceptional physical characteristics enable a rapid and specific transport mechanism in the physiological context, a notion supported by single molecule in-cell assays on intact NPCs.

This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Received: June 25, 2015; Received in revised form: August 17, 2015; Accepted: September 23, 2015; Published Online: October 08, 2015

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Os quebradores de paradigma: derrubando a 'hegemonia da cultura de Darwin', de Suzan Mazur

sexta-feira, outubro 09, 2015

The Paradigm Shifters: Overthrowing the 'Hegemony of the Culture of Darwin' by Suzan Mazur

SKU: 9780692526132 
US$ 18.00

Major scientists from a dozen countries present evidence that a paradigm shift is underway or has already taken place, replacing neo-Darwinism (the standard model of evolution based on natural selection following the accumulation of random genetic mutations) with a vastly richer evolutionary synthesis than previously thought possible. 
Suzan Mazur is the author of two previous books, The Altenberg 16An Exposé of the Evolution Industry and The Origin of Life CircusA How To Make Life Extravaganza. Her reports have appeared in the Financial TimesThe EconomistForbesNewsdayPhiladelphia Inquirer,ArchaeologyAstrobiologyConnoisseurOmniHuffington PostProgressive ReviewCounterPunchScoop Media and other publications, as well as on PBS, CBC and MBC. She has been a guest on Charlie RoseMcLaughlin and various Fox Television News programs. 
Because this book is printed just for you on our Espresso Book Machine, it typically is printed and shipped within 3-4 business days. 
Non-Fiction 231 Pages US$ 18.00


Desde 1998 este blogger afirmava que estava para acontecer uma mudança paradigmática em biologia evolucionária. A Galera dos meninos e meninas de Darwin riam, alguns cientistas da Nomenklatura científica me desprezavam por eu ser, na época, um "mero professorzinho do ensino médio" (eu me orgulho disso).

O que eles sempre negaram não haver crise epistêmica na teoria da evolução, este blogger foi vindicado por evolucionistas honestos que apontaram para Darwin e disseram - Está nu! e uma revisão profunda se faz necessária!

Eu afirmei aqui que viria uma nova teoria geral da evolução - a Síntese Evolutiva Ampliada/Estendida, que seria anunciada em 2010. A Academia mudou de opinião e seria lançada somente em 2020. Eles anunciaram a nova teoria em agosto de 2015.

Uma pergunta causticante - os 16 de Altenberg, sem uma teoria para guiar as pesquisas, e a ciência abomina o vazio teórico, como fizeram biologia evolucionária? Abracadabra? Abre-te Sésamo? Entranhas de animais? Astrologia? Cartas de Tarô? Horóscopo???

Fui, nem por que, rindo da cara da Galera dos meninos e meninas de Darwin e de muitos cientistas da Nomenklatura científica que afirmaram, na sua retórica prepotente, intimidadora e demonizante, que era tudo falso.  
No livro da Suzan Mazur, alguns desses cientistas evolucionistas honestos dizem porque Darwin está nu e a sua cultura precisa ser derrubada! E eles me vindicaram! Com que cara vocês ficam agora?

Especiação? Seus problemas acabaram - O problema de espécie e sua lógica: Ambiguidade inescapável e quadro referencial de relatividade

The species problem and its logic: Inescapable Ambiguity and Framework-relativity

Steven James Bartlett

(Submitted on 4 Sep 2015)

For more than fifty years, taxonomists have proposed numerous alternative definitions of species while they searched for a unique, comprehensive, and persuasive definition. This monograph shows that these efforts have been unnecessary, and indeed have provably been a pursuit of a will o' the wisp because they have failed to recognize the theoretical impossibility of what they seek to accomplish. A clear and rigorous understanding of the logic underlying species definition leads both to a recognition of the inescapable ambiguity that affects the definition of species, and to a framework-relative approach to species definition that is logically compelling, i.e., cannot not be accepted without inconsistency. An appendix reflects upon the conclusions reached, applying them in an intellectually whimsical taxonomic thought experiment that conjectures the possibility of an emerging new human species.

Comments: 59 pages, 2 tables

Subjects: Other Quantitative Biology (q-bio.OT)

Cite as: arXiv:1510.01589 [q-bio.OT]

(or arXiv:1510.01589v1 [q-bio.OT] for this version)

Submission history

From: Steven Bartlett [view email

[v1] Fri, 4 Sep 2015 23:32:20 GMT (446kb)


Datação biogeográfica dos tempos de especiação usando processos paleogeograficamente informados

Biogeographic dating of speciation times using paleogeographically informed processes

Michael J Landis

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/028738


Standard models of molecular evolution cannot estimate absolute speciation times alone, and require external calibrations to do so. Because fossil calibration methods rely on the unreliable fossil record, most nodes in the tree of life are dated with poor accuracy. However, many major paleogeographical events are dated, and since biogeographic processes depend on paleogeographical conditions, biogeographic dating may be used as an alternative or complementary method to fossil dating. I demonstrate how a time-stratified biogeographic stochastic process may be used to estimate absolute divergence times by conditioning on dated paleogeographical events. Informed by the current paleogeographical literature, I construct an empirical dispersal graph using 25 areas and 26 epochs for the past 540 Ma of Earth's history. Simulations indicate biogeographic dating performs well so long as paleogeography imposes constraint on biogeographic character evolution. To gauge whether biogeographic dating may have any practical use, I analyze the well-studied turtle clade (Testudines) then assess how well biogeographic dating fares compared to heavily fossil-calibrated dating results as reported in the literature. Fossil-free biogeographic dating estimated the age of the most recent common ancestor of extant turtles to be approximately 201 Ma, which is consistent with fossil-based estimates. Accuracy improves further when including a root node fossil calibration. The described model, paleogeographical dispersal graph, and analysis scripts are available for use with RevBayes.



The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder. It is made available under a CC-BY 4.0 International license.

Simpósio sobre a TDI na Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie: 4 e 5 de dezembro de 2015

Mais um simpósio sobre a teoria do Design Inteligente na Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, uma das mais renomadas universidades privadas brasileiras, e que trouxe a TDI para a mesa do debate acadêmico no Brasil.

Maiores informações:

SBDI - Sociedade Brasileira do Design Inteligente

O enigma da informação: mero acaso, fortuita necessidade ou design inteligente?

quinta-feira, outubro 08, 2015

Ancestrais arqueanos de eucariontes: não tão mais indescritíveis

Archaeal ancestors of eukaryotes: not so elusive any more

Eugene V. Koonin

Correspondence: Eugene V Koonin koonin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

BMC Biology 2015, 13:84 doi:10.1186/s12915-015-0194-5

Published: 5 October 2015


The origin of eukaryotes is one of the hardest problems in evolutionary biology and sometimes raises the ominous specter of irreducible complexity. Reconstruction of the gene repertoire of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) has revealed a highly complex organism with a variety of advanced features but no detectable evolutionary intermediates to explain their origin. Recently, however, genome analysis of diverse archaea led to the discovery of apparent ancestral versions of several signature eukaryotic systems, such as the actin cytoskeleton and the ubiquitin network, that are scattered among archaea. These findings inspired the hypothesis that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes was an unusually complex form with an elaborate intracellular organization. The latest striking discovery made by deep metagenomic sequencing vindicates this hypothesis by showing that in phylogenetic trees eukaryotes fall within a newly identified archaeal group, the Lokiarchaeota, which combine several eukaryotic signatures previously identified in different archaea. The discovery of complex archaea that are the closest living relatives of eukaryotes is most compatible with the symbiogenetic scenario for eukaryogenesis.




Uai, mas a tese de complexidade irredutível de Behe já não tinha sido refutada? Pelo menos é que diz a Galera dos meninos e meninas de Darwin e alguns cientistas na Nomenklatura científica. Mas Koonin, um dos gigantes em Biologia evolucionária dos séculos 20 e 21, parece que não se convenceu das refutações apresentadas, para mim foram todas tentativas pífias, e se deu ao trabalho árduo de refutar a tese da complexidade de Behe lá na raiz do LECA (last eukaryotic common ancestor - último ancestral comum eucariótico)! E nos apresentou apenas uma CENÁRIO???

Pano rápido! Fui, cada vez mais confiante na robustez da tese de complexidade irredutível - um FENÔMENO REAL detectado na natureza!

Chimpanzés lançam luz sobre as origens do andar humano

quarta-feira, outubro 07, 2015

Surprising trunk rotational capabilities in chimpanzees and implications for bipedal walking proficiency in early hominins

Nathan E. Thompson, Brigitte Demes, Matthew C. O’Neill, Nicholas B. Holowka & Susan G. Larson

Affiliations Contributions Corresponding author

Nature Communications 6, Article number: 8416 doi:10.1038/ncomms9416

Received 10 July 2015 Accepted 19 August 2015 Published 06 October 2015

Source/Fonte: Nathan Thompson, Lucille Betti-Nash, and Deming Yang


Human walking entails coordinated out-of-phase axial rotations of the thorax and pelvis. A long-held assumption is that this ability relies on adaptations for trunk flexibility present in humans, but not in chimpanzees, other great apes, or australopithecines. Here we use three-dimensional kinematic analyses to show that, contrary to current thinking, chimpanzees walking bipedally rotate their lumbar and thoracic regions in a manner similar to humans. This occurs despite differences in the magnitude of trunk motion, and despite morphological differences in truncal ‘rigidity’ between species. These results suggest that, like humans and chimpanzees, early hominins walked with upper body rotations that countered pelvic rotation. We demonstrate that even if early hominins walked with pelvic rotations 50% larger than humans, they may have accrued the energetic and mechanical benefits of out-of-phase thoracic rotations. This would have allowed early hominins to reduce work and locomotor cost, improving walking efficiency early in hominin evolution.

Subject terms: Biological sciences Zoology Evolution

FREE PDF GRATIS: Nature Communications
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Descrição de um feto tipo cavalo antigo do Eoceno europeu (48 milhões de anos): similar aos cavalos modernos

Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis

Jens Lorenz Franzen , Christine Aurich, Jörg Habersetzer

Published: October 7, 2015DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137985


The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany), is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

Citation: Franzen JL, Aurich C, Habersetzer J (2015) Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0137985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137985

Editor: Andrew A. Farke, Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology, UNITED STATES

Received: January 15, 2015; Accepted: August 24, 2015; Published: October 7, 2015

Copyright: © 2015 Franzen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: These authors have no support or funding to report.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


A evidência fóssil e fases de alongamento do pescoço da Giraffa camelopardalis

Fossil evidence and stages of elongation of the Giraffa camelopardalis neck

Melinda Danowitz, Aleksandr Vasilyev, Victoria Kortlandt, Nikos Solounias

Published 7 October 2015.DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150393


Several evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain the adaptation of the long giraffe neck; however, few studies examine the fossil cervical vertebrae. We incorporate extinct giraffids, and the okapi and giraffe cervical vertebral specimens in a comprehensive analysis of the anatomy and elongation of the neck. We establish and evaluate 20 character states that relate to general, cranial and caudal vertebral lengthening, and calculate a length-to-width ratio to measure the relative slenderness of the vertebrae. Our sample includes cervical vertebrae (n=71) of 11 taxa representing all seven subfamilies. We also perform a computational comparison of the C3 of Samotherium and Giraffa camelopardalis, which demonstrates that cervical elongation occurs disproportionately along the cranial–caudal vertebral axis. Using the morphological characters and calculated ratios, we propose stages in cervical lengthening, which are supported by the mathematical transformations using fossil and extant specimens. We find that cervical elongation is anisometric and unexpectedly precedes Giraffidae. Within the family, cranial vertebral elongation is the first lengthening stage observed followed by caudal vertebral elongation, which accounts for the extremely long neck of the giraffe.

FREE PDF GRATIS: Royal Society Open

Tecido mole e disposição dermal na asa de uma aves do Cretáceo inferior (100 milhões de anos atrás): implicações para a evolução do voo das aves

Soft-tissue and dermal arrangement in the wing of an Early Cretaceous bird: Implications for the evolution of avian flight

Guillermo Navalón, Jesús Marugán-Lobón, Luis M. Chiappe, José Luis Sanz & Ángela D. Buscalioni

Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 14864 (2015)


Received: 13 April 2015 Accepted: 09 September 2015 

Published online: 06 October 2015


Despite a wealth of fossils of Mesozoic birds revealing evidence of plumage and other soft-tissue structures, the epidermal and dermal anatomy of their wing’s patagia remain largely unknown. We describe a distal forelimb of an enantiornithine bird from the Lower Cretaceous limestones of Las Hoyas, Spain, which reveals the overall morphology of the integument of the wing and other connective structures associated with the insertion of flight feathers. The integumentary anatomy, and myological and arthrological organization of the new fossil is remarkably similar to that of modern birds, in which a system of small muscles, tendons and ligaments attaches to the follicles of the remigial feathers and maintains the functional integrity of the wing during flight. The new fossil documents the oldest known occurrence of connective tissues in association with the flight feathers of birds. Furthermore, the presence of an essentially modern connective arrangement in the wing of enantiornithines supports the interpretation of these primitive birds as competent fliers.

FREE PDF GRATIS: Scientific Reports



Tecido mole preservado em fóssil de mais ou menos 100 milhões de anos atrás???

Pano rápido, pois o Abstract diz que existe uma grande quantidade desses fósseis...

Por que o Dogma Central: da natureza do grande princípio biológico da exclusão

Why the Central Dogma: on the nature of the great biological exclusion principle

Eugene V. Koonin

Correspondence: Eugene V Koonin koonin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Biology Direct 2015, 10:52 doi:10.1186/s13062-015-0084-3

Published: 16 September 2015


The Central Dogma of molecular biology posits that transfer of information from proteins back to nucleic acids does not occur in biological systems. I argue that the impossibility of reverse translation is indeed a major, physical exclusion principle that emerges due to the transition from the digital information carriers, nucleic acids, to analog information carriers, proteins, which involves irreversible suppression of the digital information.

This article was reviewed by Itai Yanai, Martin Lercher and Frank Eisenhaber.

Keywords: Central Dogma; Digital information; Analogous information; Translation; Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases 

FREE PDF GRATIS: Biology Direct

O pé do Homo naledi

terça-feira, outubro 06, 2015

The foot of Homo naledi

W. E. H. Harcourt-Smith, Z. Throckmorton, K. A. Congdon, B. Zipfel, A. S. Deane, M. S. M. Drapeau, S. E. Churchill, L. R. Berger & J. M. DeSilva


Modern humans are characterized by a highly specialized foot that reflects our obligate bipedalism. Our understanding of hominin foot evolution is, although, hindered by a paucity of well-associated remains. Here we describe the foot of Homo naledi from Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, using 107 pedal elements, including one nearly-complete adult foot. The H. naledi foot is predominantly modern human-like in morphology and inferred function, with an adducted hallux, an elongated tarsus, and derived ankle and calcaneocuboid joints. In combination, these features indicate a foot well adapted for striding bipedalism. However, the H. naledi foot differs from modern humans in having more curved proximal pedal phalanges, and features suggestive of a reduced medial longitudinal arch. Within the context of primitive features found elsewhere in the skeleton, these findings suggest a unique locomotor repertoire for H. naledi, thus providing further evidence of locomotor diversity within both the hominin clade and the genus Homo.

Subject terms: Biological sciences Evolution Palaeontology

FREE PDF GRATIS: Nature Communications
                            Supplementary Information

A sopa primordial era comestível: a mistura de Miller-Urey produzida abioticamente suporta o crescimento bacteriano

Primordial soup was edible: abiotically produced Miller-Urey mixture supports bacterial growth

Xueshu Xie, Daniel Backman, Albert T. Lebedev, Viatcheslav B. Artaev, Liying Jiang, Leopold L. Ilag & Roman A. Zubarev

Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 14338 (2015)



Sixty years after the seminal Miller-Urey experiment that abiotically produced a mixture of racemized amino acids, we provide a definite proof that this primordial soup, when properly cooked, was edible for primitive organisms. Direct admixture of even small amounts of Miller-Urey mixture strongly inhibits E. coli bacteria growth due to the toxicity of abundant components, such as cyanides. However, these toxic compounds are both volatile and extremely reactive, while bacteria are highly capable of adaptation. Consequently, after bacterial adaptation to a mixture of the two most abundant abiotic amino acids, glycine and racemized alanine, dried and reconstituted MU soup was found to support bacterial growth and even accelerate it compared to a simple mixture of the two amino acids. Therefore, primordial Miller-Urey soup was perfectly suitable as a growth media for early life forms.

FREE PDF GRATIS: Scientific Reports

Current Biology - Edição especial sobre a origem da vida

    CURRENT BIOLOGY Vol 25, Issue 19 Oct. 5, 2015 - Edição especial sobre a origem da vida. Todos os artigos abaixo são OPEN ACCESS.
    History of Life on Earth Special Issue
    Laura Eme, W. Ford Doolittle
    Maximilian J. Telford, Graham E. Budd, Hervé Philippe
    Stephen L. Brusatte, Jingmai K. O’Connor, Erich D. Jarvis
    Charles Francis Delwiche, Endymion Dante Cooper