Comportamento animal também é sinal de design inteligente?

sábado, agosto 29, 2009

Eu recebi de um leitor um e-mail me questionando sobre a possibilidade de o comportamento animal ser também uma característica de design inteligente. Confesso, eu fico um meio com pé atrás em relação à tese desses autores, mas, em respeito à indagação do leitor, eis aqui algo a respeito disso.


By Istaván Tasi and Balázs Hornyánszky

It is not at all surprising that insects behave like insects, birds behave like birds, and mammals behave like mammals. They execute most of their intricate behavior in a predetermined, instinctive manner. But how do they know when and how they should act? Where did the intelligence that is manifested in nature come from?

Evolutionists attempt to explain the origin of behavioral patterns by gradual modifications of more simple behavior forms. But when we try to explain complex animal behavior this way, it becomes impossible!

"If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down."

— Charles Darwin, author The Origin of Species

Nature’s IQ invites you to investigate an alternative explanation. Is it possible, that our world reflects in many different ways, a supernatural intelligence that has applied its own infinitely ingenious solutions to create the living world?

Using 200 fascinating color photos, Nature’s IQ cites over 100 behavioral phenomena from the animal kingdom that are unexplainable by evolution. You’ll find this book both engaging and thought provoking.

"The authors of Nature's IQ give us good reasons to no longer accept Darwinian theories as actual explanations. They demonstrate to us that truly scientific explanations have not been given, and that in principle they cannot be given”.
— Michael A. Cremo, Co-Author Forbidden Archeology – The Hidden History of The Human Race


Reviews of Nature’s IQ

An Eye Opener

Nature's IQ is an eye-opener for those who have until now believed that evolution is a proven fact. It is a clincher for those who having heard arguments for and against evolution are undecided. And it is an ‘empowerer’ for those striving to introduce a spiritual paradigm into modern science. I hope the issues it raises will be widely discussed. —Prof. Rajesh Jalnekar, PhD, Dean Academics, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune

Interesting, Smart, and Convincing

Personally this book is another great confirmation of my old opinion, that the Darwinian evolution theory is false. There is no scientific evidence, only a never supported nor proved guess - which they so cunningly made the world believe.

This highly interesting, smart and convincing piece gives thousands of examples how nature’s living beings have intelligence – but from where? This must be the most exciting question that scientists should have to ask. Those who do not wish to wait for the academies’ anointed professors, but read this book instead, get far closer to understanding the secret. I read it, and did not regret it. — Istvan Nemere, famous Hungarian author.

Well-reasoned Arguments

With its lavish pictures, Nature's IQ is a pleasure to view. And with its well-reasoned, succinctly stated arguments, it is a treat to read. Overall it leads the reader to a deeper appreciation of the beauty of nature and the wisdom of the designer behind nature.
—Dr Sudhakar Sainkar, PhD, Emeritux Deputy Director & Head, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune

Good Reasons to No Longer Accept Darwin

The authors of Nature's IQ give us good reasons to no longer accept Darwinian theories as actual explanations. They demonstrate to us that truly scientific explanations have not been given, and that in principle they cannot be given. They breathe new life into the design argument in biology, particularly with regard to the complex behavior displayed by many living things. — Michael A. Cremo, Co-Author Forbidden Archeology – The Hidden History of The Human Race, Author Human Devolution - A Vedic Alternative to Darwin’s Theory

Like a Velvet Glove Encasing an Iron Fist

Nature's IQ brings to life the marvels of the animal world - and the mysteries with which it baffles Darwinism. Like a velvet glove encasing an iron fist, it's visually appealing pictorial format encloses a formidable intellectual challenge to the prevailing evolutionary paradigm in modern science. —Prof Janardan Chitode, PhD, Author & Professor at Bhartiya Vidyapeeth University, Pune

A Positive Contribution to Humanity

In scientific circles the theory of evolution is widely accepted as factual. Books like Nature’s IQ remind us, however, that it is only a theory, and a theory with serious drawbacks at that. Traditionally it has been difficult to explain how entirely new organs composed of parts that must be simultaneously present for their functionality could actually evolve. Although theories such as that of co-option attempt to account for these, they actually fall short, and end up sounding like so much storytelling in the name of science, with little factual evidence supporting them. Nature’s IQ shows that complex behavior often associated with new organs is also difficult to explain in an evolutionary way, and the book offers many, many colorfully illustrated examples.

It addition to challenging evolutionary conceptions and proposing a version of intelligent design, Nature’s IQ offers an explanation from ancient India’s vast collection of writings as an alternative. This is coupled with references to empirical studies consistent with the Vedic world view. Thus Nature’s IQ has more of a positive contribution to offer humanity than most literature questioning the viability of evolutionary theory.

The philosophical questions introduced at the end of each chapter for which an answer is promised in final chapter create curiosity and generate an interest to read further and are a nice touch.

I recommend this book to anyone seriously interested in science and the origin and meaning of life. —Christopher Beetle, Computer Science, Brown University

Origins We Don’t Understand Yet

For a biologist the examples of this book are not arguments, but wonderful occurrences, whose origin we don’t understand yet. —Peter Kabai, ethnologist

Evolution or Supernatural Intelligence?

Even though Darwin’s theory has never been successfully proven, most of us believe that we were created through evolution. Balázs Hornyánszky(a bioengineer) and István Tasi, (a cultural anthropologist), in their book, Nature’s IQ, are trying to disprove the Darwinian conception, that has been the subject of arguments since 1859, when Origin of The Species appeared.

“Evolution is presented in the system of education and in sciences as if it was proven. We would like to draw the attention only to the many concrete facts, which we aren’t able to explain on the basis of the evolution’s logic in nature. One of these is the instinct of animals”, says Mr.Tasi.

This publication, illustrated with beautiful photographs, gives more than a hundred examples from natural behaviors that relate one by one to a design of a higher supernatural intelligence. —Color Today (Newspaper)

A Novel Contribution to the Intelligent Design Literature

Hungarian scientists Balazs Hornyanszky and Istvan Tasi offer a novel contribution to the intelligent design literature by extending Michael Behe's theory of irreducible complexity from biological form to biological behavior. Where did the mysterious instincts of animals originate? Nature's IQ.

The authors document more than 100 astonishing, unexplained phenomena from the animal kingdom, with 200 amazing color pictures. The authors point out how Darwinian "just so" stories fail to explain these irreducibly complex instincts and behaviors. This book is a valuable addition to any library for it's amazing photos of animal life and it's catalog of fascinating animal behavior regardless of whether you believe they were a product of random mutations and natural selection or a product of artful, purposeful design.

Another unique aspect of the book is the final chapter on "The Source of Intelligence" where they state that "an intelligence, much more refined than ours, conceived and shaped the functioning of the living world in advance". The existing world is therefore the realization of this original, organic blueprint.

Although this is no different than other minimalist definitions of ID, the authors of the book write the final chapter from an Indian (Hindu) perspective which is also a unique contribution to the ID literature: "We have chosen the thesaurus of the wisdom of Indian culture as the supporting document for our assertions about a divine intelligence for several reasons." First, because of its geographic and cultural distance, scriptures of Vedic wisdom are perhaps less know to the Western audience; thus from the point of view of knowledge acquisition, their presentation is therefore useful. We have chosen this literature because these Sanskrit texts present in detail a supportable and logical alternative to the prevailing evolutionist view. — Access Research Network

The Chance of Mutation…Would be More than a Miracle

Why do arctic terns fly 22,000 miles each year? How can a fish have both eyes on the same side of its body? What is the meaning of the complex patterns of dances performed by honeybees?

The answers to these questions and many more are shared in a virtual odyssey into the kingdom of nature entitled Nature’s IQ: Extraordinary Animal Behaviors that Defy Evolution (Torchlight Publishing, Inc. 2009). Released just after the 200th Anniversary of Charles Darwin’s birthday, this English translation from the original Hungarian edition will delight inquisitive children, wizened sages, the young at heart, simple nature lovers, and Intelligent Design theorists alike.

The authors, Istvan Tasi, a Cultural Anthropologist and Theologian, and Balazs Hornyanszky, a Bioengineer, present case after compelling case supporting their thesis that Darwinian evolution is not a logical consequence of intricate and idiosyncratic animal behaviors but rather, natural intelligence reflects a supreme intelligence and designer. Richly illustrated, offering 200 exquisitely interesting color plates, this 160-page hardbound book scintillates with detail, intrigue, and wit, beckoning the curious reader onward into ensuing vignettes sparkling with enigmatic adventures of mysterious living entities.

A summary of “Darwin’s frogs” is given on pages 122-123:

Darwin himself discovered the frog in Chile (Rhinoderma darwinii). After female Darwin’s frogs lay their eggs on wet beaches, males sense the scent of the eggs and fertilize them. They then station themselves beside the eggs in groups and guard them for about twenty days. When the developing eggs begin to move in their tiny, jelly-like globules, the males lean over to them and gulp—they seemingly eat them! Of course, they do not eat the eggs but instead place them with their tongue into their long expandable vocal pouch, situated in the lower part of ther body. The eggs continue to develop in the vocal pouch until one day the male suddenly yawns widely, and the fully developed baby frogs jump out of his mouth….

…For viable offspring to hatch, the frog father must know that he has to keep an eye on the eggs. Furthermore, he has to have the instincts commanding the right behavior: when the young are about to hatch, he has to get them into his specially structured vocal pouch. And when they are fully developed, he has to set them free.
If any of these elements were missing, the frog’s reproduction would be unsuccessful.

Therefore, it is inconceivable that the Darwin’s frog and its special way of reproduction came into existence step by step, as a result of small changes….It is inconceivable that this frog species, with its specialized behavior, came into existence by a sudden large-scale mutation….The chance mutation of these genes causing a series of concerted, appropriate behaviors would be more than a miracle.

This excerpt provides one example of the methodology employed in analyzing and diffusing evolution theory in terms of reproduction and survival of offspring. Other sections cover predation, defense, symbiosis, animal communication, navigation, and mating behaviors.

The final chapter, entitled “The Source of Intelligence,” presents an alternative explanation referred to as “inverse evolution” from the Vedic ontology:

The Vedic account of the origin of species has three main principles: existence of a supreme person, living beings on other planets with special creative and multiplication abilities, and descent by modification.

The authors assert that incredible behavioral complexity, species diversity, amazing instinctual intelligence, and symbiotic relationships of living entities emanate from the source of all created beings, the Godhead, as described in elaborate detail throughout volumes of ancient scriptures from East India. They conclude that “In reality, nature’s IQ is the creator’s IQ.”

Employing a distinctly innovative approach, Nature’s IQ offers original and valuable insights for the Intelligent Design community. Charles Darwin’s followers might also find it interesting! — Lori Erbs, Librarian – General Services Administration

The Intelligent Design Of Animal Behaviors

Ethology, the field of biology that attempts to explain the origins of animal behavioral patterns, has traditionally focused on two possible sources for such patterns- those that are inherited and those that are environmentally induced. For the former of these two, the Darwinian mechanism is that which is most commonly advanced. The underlying axiom barely needs repeating- inherited behaviors have been acquired through gradual changes as a result of environmental selective pressures. In his 1973 Nobel lecture entitled Analogy As A Source Of Knowledge, Konrad Lorenz made his case in favor of the link between Darwinian gradualism and animal behavior. And yet in Nature's IQ, authors Balazs Hornyansky and Istvan Tasi blast such a gradualistic inference and re-interpret the evidence in favor of the intelligent design alternative.

For many key anatomical features found in nature, a necessary behavioral pattern must be present if a desired function is to be fulfilled. The prominent bioluminescent bulb of the anglerfish for example must exhibit a slow waving motion if it is to lure its prey. As Hornyansky and Tasi so vividly illustrate, any intermediate behavior on the way to becoming the fully-fledged comportment we see today, would have been inappropriate and insufficient for catching unsuspecting fry. In effect, anglerfish are endowed with an IQ that must have appeared at once and in parallel with its predatory anatomy if it were to provide any selective advantage.

We see the same principle playing out in the trap-like lures of other creatures such as the decoy scorpion fish, the Argentine Horned frog and the copper-head snake. Most prominent of all is the alligator snapping turtle which holds its mouth open for extended periods of time while waiting for a victim to catch sight of its worm-like wriggling tongue. The New Guinean dung spider is able not only to assume the appearance of bird droppings but also produce a characteristic 'dropping' smell as a way of enticing and trapping insects that normally feed on such a delectable meal. Hungry Egyptian vultures repeatedly throw stones at ostrich eggs as they try to access their next meal- a behavior that has been conclusively shown to be integral part of the vulture's genetic constitution.

Hornyanszky and Tasi maintain that for all such cases, both the anatomical features and the accompanying behaviors must have arisen all at once if the observed functions were to have been achieved. In short they build on biochemist Michael Behe's showcase volume Darwin's Black Box by inferring that many such anatomical-behavioral functional units are irreducibly complex and thereby inaccessible to a progressive accumulation of random mutations.

Hornyanszky's and Tasi's case in favor of intelligent design is made all the more compelling through the wealth of examples that they draw on as well as the rich illustrations that accompany many of these examples. In all, the first chapter of Nature's IQ provides a firm foundation in support of the Intelligent Design case and sets the tone for the chapters that follow. — Robert Deyes, ARN Correspondent