Como as células consertam membranas com vazamento: mero acaso, fortuita necessidade ou design inteligente?

sexta-feira, maio 28, 2021

Sealing holes in cellular membranes

Yan Zhen, Maja Radulovic, Marina Vietri, Harald Stenmark

Author Information

Yan Zhen1,2, Maja Radulovic1,2, Marina Vietri1,2 and Harald Stenmark *,1,2,3

1Centre for Cancer Cell Reprogramming, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

2Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Centre of Molecular Inflammation Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

*Corresponding author. Tel: +47 22781818; E-mail: 

Holes in the plasma membrane can be sealed by patching, endocytosis, budding, macrophage-mediated membrane removal or reduction in membrane tension.


The compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells, which is essential for their viability and functions, is ensured by single or double bilayer membranes that separate the cell from the exterior and form boundaries between the cell’s organelles and the cytosol. Nascent nuclear envelopes and autophagosomes, which both are enveloped by double membranes, need to be sealed during the late stage of their biogenesis. On the other hand, the integrity of cellular membranes such as the plasma membrane, lysosomes and the nuclear envelope can be compromised by pathogens, chemicals, radiation, inflammatory responses and mechanical stress. There are cellular programmes that restore membrane integrity after injury. Here, we review cellular mechanisms that have evolved to maintain membrane integrity during organelle biogenesis and after injury, including membrane scission mediated by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), vesicle patching and endocytosis.