DNA, RNA e ferramentas de proteínas para editar informação genética em células humanas

terça-feira, setembro 04, 2018

REVIEW| VOLUME 6, ISSUE , P247-263, AUGUST 31, 2018

DNA, RNA, and Protein Tools for Editing the Genetic Information in Human Cells

Xiaoyu Chen 2 Manuel A.F.V. Gonçalves

Published:August 03, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2018.08.001


Solving the structure of DNA in 1953 has unleashed a tour de force in molecular biology that has illuminated how the genetic information stored in DNA is copied and flows downstream into RNA and proteins. Currently, increasingly powerful technologies permit not only reading and writing DNA in vitro but also editing the genetic instructions in cells from virtually any organism. Editing specific genomic sequences in living cells has been particularly accelerated with the introduction of programmable RNA-guided nucleases (RGNs) based on prokaryotic CRISPR adaptive immune systems. The repair of chromosomal breaks made by RGNs with donor DNA patches results in targeted genome editing involving the introduction of specific genetic changes at predefined genomic positions. Hence, donor DNAs, guide RNAs, and nuclease proteins, each representing the molecular entities underlying the storage, transmission, and expression of genetic information, are, once delivered into cells, put to work as agents of change of that very same genetic text. Here, after providing an outline of the programmable nuclease-assisted genome editing field, we review the increasingly diverse range of DNA, RNA, and protein components (e.g., nucleases and “nickases”) that, when brought together, underlie RGN-based genome editing in eukaryotic cells.

Subject Areas Techniques in Genetics Molecular Genetics Molecular Biology Experimental Approach