Dominando o caos: calculando a probabilidade em sistemas complexos

quarta-feira, março 21, 2018

Entropy-based generating Markov partitions for complex systems featured

Chaos 28, 033611 (2018);

Nicolás Rubido1, Celso Grebogi2, and Murilo S. Baptista2


1Instituto de Física de Facultad de Ciencias (IFFC), Universidad de la República (UdelaR), Iguá 4225, Montevideo, Uruguay

2Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology (ICSMB), King's College, University of Aberdeen (UoA), AB24 3UE Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Source/Fonte: Nicolás Rubido


Finding the correct encoding for a generic dynamical system's trajectory is a complicated task: the symbolic sequence needs to preserve the invariant properties from the system's trajectory. In theory, the solution to this problem is found when a Generating Markov Partition (GMP) is obtained, which is only defined once the unstable and stable manifolds are known with infinite precision and for all times. However, these manifolds usually form highly convoluted Euclidean sets, are a priori unknown, and, as it happens in any real-world experiment, measurements are made with finite resolution and over a finite time-span. The task gets even more complicated if the system is a network composed of interacting dynamical units, namely, a high-dimensional complex system. Here, we tackle this task and solve it by defining a method to approximately construct GMPs for any complex system's finite-resolution and finite-time trajectory. We critically test our method on networks of coupled maps, encoding their trajectories into symbolic sequences. We show that these sequences are optimal because they minimise the information loss and also any spurious information added. Consequently, our method allows us to approximately calculate the invariant probability measures of complex systems from the observed data. Thus, we can efficiently define complexity measures that are applicable to a wide range of complex phenomena, such as the characterisation of brain activity from electroencephalogram signals measured at different brain regions or the characterisation of climate variability from temperature anomalies measured at different Earth regions.

The use of measures from the Information Theory for complex systems' analysis requires the estimation of probabilities. In practice, these probabilities need to be derived from finite data-sets, namely, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals coming from different brain regions, electrocardiogram (EKG) signals coming from the heart, or temperature anomalies coming from different Earth regions. Respectively, the complex systems in these cases are the brain, the heart, and the Earth climate—all being systems composed of many dynamically interacting components. The main reason behind using measures from the Information Theory to analyse complex systems is that these measures help to better understand and predict their behaviour and functioning. However, calculating probabilities from observed data is never straightforward; in particular, up-to-now, we lack practical ways to define them without losing useful (or adding meaningless) information in the process. In order to minimise these spurious additions or losses, we propose here a method to derive these probabilities optimally. Our method makes an entropy-based encoding of the measured signals, thus, transforming them into easy-to-handle symbolic sequences containing most of the relevant information about the system dynamics. Consequently, we can find the Information Theory measures, or any other spatio-temporal average, when we seek analysing a complex system.


'Nova' forma de vida explica a evolução das células???

terça-feira, março 20, 2018

Converting Escherichia coli into an archaebacterium with a hybrid heterochiral membrane

Antonella Caforio, Melvin F. Siliakus, Marten Exterkate, Samta Jain, Varsha R. Jumde, Ruben L. H. Andringa, Servé W. M. Kengen, Adriaan J. Minnaard, Arnold J. M. Driessen and John van der Oost

PNAS March 19, 2018. 201721604; published ahead of print March 19, 2018.  

Edited by Eugene V. Koonin, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, and approved February 27, 2018 (received for review December 12, 2017).



Escherichia coli has been engineered toward an archaebacterium with an unprecedented high level of archaeal ether phospholipids. The obtained cells stably maintain a mixed heterochiral membrane. This finding challenges theories that assume that intrinsic instability of mixed membranes led to the “lipid divide” and the subsequent differentiation of bacteria and archaea. Furthermore, this study paves the way for future membrane engineering of industrial production organisms with improved robustness.


One of the main differences between bacteria and archaea concerns their membrane composition. Whereas bacterial membranes are made up of glycerol-3-phosphate ester lipids, archaeal membranes are composed of glycerol-1-phosphate ether lipids. Here, we report the construction of a stable hybrid heterochiral membrane through lipid engineering of the bacterium Escherichia coli. By boosting isoprenoid biosynthesis and heterologous expression of archaeal ether lipid biosynthesis genes, we obtained a viable E. coli strain of which the membranes contain archaeal lipids with the expected stereochemistry. It has been found that the archaeal lipid biosynthesis enzymes are relatively promiscuous with respect to their glycerol phosphate backbone and that E. coli has the unexpected potential to generate glycerol-1-phosphate. The unprecedented level of 20–30% archaeal lipids in a bacterial cell has allowed for analyzing the effect on the mixed-membrane cell’s phenotype. Interestingly, growth rates are unchanged, whereas the robustness of cells with a hybrid heterochiral membrane appeared slightly increased. The implications of these findings for evolutionary scenarios are discussed.

lipid biosynthesis ether lipids hybrid membranes bacteria archaea


A ciência está realmente enfrentando uma crise de replicabilidade das pesquisas, e nós precisamos disso?

Opinion: Is science really facing a reproducibility crisis, and do we need it to?

Daniele Fanelli

PNAS March 12, 2018. 201708272; published ahead of print March 12, 2018. 

Edited by David B. Allison, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, and accepted by Editorial Board Member Susan T. Fiske November 3, 2017 (received for review June 30, 2017)


Efforts to improve the reproducibility and integrity of science are typically justified by a narrative of crisis, according to which most published results are unreliable due to growing problems with research and publication practices. This article provides an overview of recent evidence suggesting that this narrative is mistaken, and argues that a narrative of epochal changes and empowerment of scientists would be more accurate, inspiring, and compelling.

reproducible research crisis integrity bias misconduct


Como as células se protegem contra o stress mecânico: mero acaso, fortuita necessidade ou design inteligente?

sábado, março 17, 2018

Voltage gating of mechanosensitive PIEZO channels

Mirko Moroni, M. Rocio Servin-Vences, Raluca Fleischer, Oscar Sánchez-Carranza & Gary R. Lewin

Nature Communications volume 9, Article number: 1096 (2018)


Download Citation

Ion channels in the nervous system Ion transport Mechanisms of disease Peripheral vascular disease Permeation and transport

Received: 17 August 2017 Accepted: 19 February 2018

Published online: 15 March 2018

Source/Fonte: Ardem Patapoutian


Mechanosensitive PIEZO ion channels are evolutionarily conserved proteins whose presence is critical for normal physiology in multicellular organisms. Here we show that, in addition to mechanical stimuli, PIEZO channels are also powerfully modulated by voltage and can even switch to a purely voltage-gated mode. Mutations that cause human diseases, such as xerocytosis, profoundly shift voltage sensitivity of PIEZO1 channels toward the resting membrane potential and strongly promote voltage gating. Voltage modulation may be explained by the presence of an inactivation gate in the pore, the opening of which is promoted by outward permeation. Older invertebrate (fly) and vertebrate (fish) PIEZO proteins are also voltage sensitive, but voltage gating is a much more prominent feature of these older channels. We propose that the voltage sensitivity of PIEZO channels is a deep property co-opted to add a regulatory mechanism for PIEZO activation in widely different cellular contexts.


We thank Prof. Thomas Baukrowitz for initial comments on the manuscript. Liana Kozitzki for technical assistance. This work was supported by an Alexander von Humboldt fellowship to M.M. and a Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Collaborative Research Grant to G.R.L. (Project A9 SFB 958).

Author information


Department of Neuroscience, Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle Straße 10, D-13092, Berlin, Germany

Mirko Moroni, M. Rocio Servin-Vences, Raluca Fleischer, Oscar Sánchez-Carranza & Gary R. Lewin

Excellence Cluster Neurocure, Charité Universitätsmedizin, 10117, Berlin, Germany

Gary R. Lewin


Conceptualization: M.M. and G.R.L. Methodology: M.M. Investigation: M.M., M.R.S.-V., R.F., O.S.-C. Writing: M.M. and G.R.L. Visualization: M.M., M.R.S.-V and R.F. Supervision: M.M. and G.R.L. Project administration: M.M. Funding acquisition: G.R.L.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Mirko Moroni or Gary R. Lewin.

Nossos ancestrais "transaram" duas vezes com os Denisovans

quinta-feira, março 15, 2018

Analysis of Human Sequence Data Reveals Two Pulses of Archaic Denisovan Admixture

Sharon R. Browning5, Brian L. Browning, Ying Zhou, Serena Tucci, Joshua M. Akey

5Lead Contact

Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof

Article Info

Publication History

Published: March 15, 2018 Accepted: February 12, 2018

Received in revised form: November 21, 2017 Received: October 4, 2017


•Asian genomes carry introgressed DNA from Denisovans and Neanderthals

•East Asians show evidence of introgression from two distinct Denisovan populations

•South Asians and Oceanians carry introgression from one Denisovan population


Anatomically modern humans interbred with Neanderthals and with a related archaic population known as Denisovans. Genomes of several Neanderthals and one Denisovan have been sequenced, and these reference genomes have been used to detect introgressed genetic material in present-day human genomes. Segments of introgression also can be detected without use of reference genomes, and doing so can be advantageous for finding introgressed segments that are less closely related to the sequenced archaic genomes. We apply a new reference-free method for detecting archaic introgression to 5,639 whole-genome sequences from Eurasia and Oceania. We find Denisovan ancestry in populations from East and South Asia and Papuans. Denisovan ancestry comprises two components with differing similarity to the sequenced Altai Denisovan individual. This indicates that at least two distinct instances of Denisovan admixture into modern humans occurred, involving Denisovan populations that had different levels of relatedness to the sequenced Altai Denisovan.


As quatro lições científicas que Stephen Hawking não aprendeu

MAR 14, 2018 @ 10:16 AM

The 4 Scientific Lessons Stephen Hawking Never Learned

Starts With A Bang The Universe is out there, waiting for you to discover it 

Opinions expressed by Forbes Contributors are their own.

Ethan Siegel, Contributor

In the 1960s, a young theoretical physicist named Stephen Hawking rose to prominence as a primary collaborator of Roger Penrose. By his mid-20s, he had proven a number of important theorems in General Relativity, and was a rising star when tragedy struck: he was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As his muscles weakened and his body betrayed him, he remarkably continued and extended his work, performing brilliant and detailed calculations using methods he himself uniquely devised. As he became wheelchair-bound and lost nearly all motor control, he made important developments in the physics of spacetime and the field of black holes, how they radiate and decay, and whether they lose or conserve information. His popular works like A Brief History Of Time inspired generations of scientists and science enthusiasts alike. Yet despite all his achievements, there were some major scientific lessons that he died having never learned. Even our heroes fall short of perfection.

Scientifically, what Hawking achieved was remarkable. He did more in the first decade of his career to further our knowledge of the Universe than most physicists achieve in a lifetime. His early work focused on singularity theorems, describing where the physics of the Universe breaks down in General Relativity. Hawking demonstrated that these conditions were physically important, and not mere mathematical curiosities. Black holes and other singular spacetimes contained them; Hawking helped categorize and describe them. He then tackled the event horizon, describing their area, temperature, and entropy, among other properties. He wrote about what happened under conditions where two event horizons merged. Most famously, he applied quantum field theory to the conditions around an event horizon, and found that black holes slowly evaporate through a process we now call Hawking radiation. By the mid-1970s, he was a titan of the field of astrophysics.



Mais complexidade na natureza: máquinas moleculares com mecanismos bioinspirados

quarta-feira, março 14, 2018

Molecular machines with bio-inspired mechanisms

Liang Zhang, Vanesa Marcos and David A. Leigh

PNAS 2018; published ahead of print February 26, 2018, 

Edited by J. Fraser Stoddart, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, and approved January 31, 2018 (received for review December 17, 2017)

Multistage operation of a bidirectional small-molecule transporter that uses a rotary switch to control a molecular robotic arm (57)


The widespread use of molecular-level motion in key natural processes suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between the present generation of synthetic molecular machines—which by and large function as switches—and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilize the synchronized behavior of integrated components to perform more sophisticated tasks than is possible with any individual switch. Should we try to make molecular machines of greater complexity by trying to mimic machines from the macroscopic world or instead apply unfamiliar (and no doubt have to discover or invent currently unknown) mechanisms utilized by biological machines? Here we try to answer that question by exploring some of the advances made to date using bio-inspired machine mechanisms.

molecular machines molecular motors molecular robotics catenanes rotaxanes


Mais uma teoria sobre a origem da vida...

A Hydrothermal-Sedimentary Context for the Origin of Life

Published Online:
Source/Fonte: Tim Bertelink


Critical to the origin of life are the ingredients of life, of course, but also the physical and chemical conditions in which prebiotic chemical reactions can take place. These factors place constraints on the types of Hadean environment in which life could have emerged. Many locations, ranging from hydrothermal vents and pumice rafts, through volcanic-hosted splash pools to continental springs and rivers, have been proposed for the emergence of life on Earth, each with respective advantages and certain disadvantages. However, there is another, hitherto unrecognized environment that, on the Hadean Earth (4.5–4.0 Ga), would have been more important than any other in terms of spatial and temporal scale: the sedimentary layer between oceanic crust and seawater. Using as an example sediments from the 3.5–3.33 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, analogous at least on a local scale to those of the Hadean eon, we document constant permeation of the porous, carbonaceous, and reactive sedimentary layer by hydrothermal fluids emanating from the crust. This partially UV-protected, subaqueous sedimentary environment, characterized by physical and chemical gradients, represented a widespread system of miniature chemical reactors in which the production and complexification of prebiotic molecules could have led to the origin of life. Key Words: Origin of life—Hadean environment—Mineral surface reactions—Hydrothermal fluids—Archean volcanic sediments. Astrobiology 18, xxx–xxx.
FREE PDF GRATIS: Astrobiology

Transparência nas contribuições e responsabilidades dos autores para promover integridade na publicação científica

terça-feira, março 13, 2018

Transparency in authors’ contributions and responsibilities to promote integrity in scientific publication

Marcia K. McNutt, Monica Bradford, Jeffrey M. Drazen, Brooks Hanson, Bob Howard, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Véronique Kiermer, Emilie Marcus, Barbara Kline Pope, Randy Schekman, Sowmya Swaminathan, Peter J. Stang and Inder M. Verma

PNAS 2018; published ahead of print February 27, 2018, 

Edited by Karen S. Cook, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and approved January 18, 2018 (received for review August 30, 2017)


In keeping with the growing movement in scientific publishing toward transparency in data and methods, we propose changes to journal authorship policies and procedures to provide insight into which author is responsible for which contributions, better assurance that the list is complete, and clearly articulated standards to justify earning authorship credit. To accomplish these goals, we recommend that journals adopt common and transparent standards for authorship, outline responsibilities for corresponding authors, adopt the Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT) ( methodology for attributing contributions, include this information in article metadata, and require authors to use the ORCID persistent digital identifier ( Additionally, we recommend that universities and research institutions articulate expectations about author roles and responsibilities to provide a point of common understanding for discussion of authorship across research teams. Furthermore, we propose that funding agencies adopt the ORCID identifier and accept the CRediT taxonomy. We encourage scientific societies to further authorship transparency by signing on to these recommendations and promoting them through their meetings and publications programs.

authorship principlesresearch transparencyscientific integrity


Nada em câncer faz sentido a não ser à luz da evolução...

segunda-feira, março 12, 2018

Nothing in cancer makes sense except…

Mel Greaves 

BMC Biology 201816:22

Published: 21 February 2018

Source/Fonte: Cancer Research UK


Paraphrasing Dobzhansky’s famous dictum, I discuss how interrogating cancer through the lens of evolution has transformed our understanding of its development, causality and treatment resistance. The emerging picture of cancer captures its extensive diversity and therapeutic resilience, highlighting the need for more innovative approaches to control.


A Folha de São Paulo atrasadíssima sobre a falência epistêmica do Darwinismo: este blog há anos noticia isso!

Descobertas contestam hegemonia de Darwin e recuperam Lamarck

Características adquiridas em vida afetam genética e evolução das espécies, escreve professor escocês

11.mar.2018 às 2h00

Kevin Laland

RESUMO Autor afirma que pesquisas recentes indicam que a evolução das espécies é um fenômeno mais complexo do que se imaginava e não pode ser explicado apenas pela seleção natural. Defensor de uma teoria alternativa (a síntese evolutiva estendida), ele argumenta que a ciência tem dificuldade para incorporar novas ideias.

Leia o texto completo aqui.

Artigo original em inglês aqui.


Desde 1998 este blogger vem anunciando uma grande, eminente e iminente mudança paradigmática em biologia evolutiva. Não foi falta de notificação às editorias de ciência da Grande Mídia Tupiniquim e seus jornalistas científicos. A maioria nem deu atenção devida ao que lhes chegava às mãos. Não interessa a quem tem uma agenda ideológica lidar com as questões de justificação teórica.

Apenas um jornalista científico deu a atenção devida: Maurício Tuffani, então na Folha de São Paulo, com uma reportagem especial intitulada "Visões extremas da evolução", onde prevaleceu o paradigma neodarwinista e um pequeno destaque marginalizado da Teoria do Design Inteligente na figura de Michael Behe, com a sua tese da complexidade irredutível (A Caixa Preta de Darwin, Rio de Janeiro: Zahar Editor, 1997) e quando trabalhou na Galileu, publicou meu pequeno artigo O Convite de Darwin.

Bastante atrasada, aliás muito atrasada, a Folha de São Paulo trás à tona o que a Nomenklatura científica conversa intramuros, mas que não mais como não debater a falência epistemológica do Darwinismo. A internet já tornou isso público no mundo inteiro. Ao debate, senhores! Com a teoria do Design Inteligente à mesa, pois a Síntese Evolutiva Ampliada/Estendida é uma teoria científica natimorta: não lidou como deveria lidar sobre a origem da informação genética...

Respondendo a apresentações simplistas do Darwinismo como faz a revista Galileu

sexta-feira, março 09, 2018

Evolution News | @DiscoveryCSC

8 de março de 2018, 1:54 AM

De vez em quando, escritores de ciência popular sentem a necessidade de reeducar seus leitores sobre o fato da evolução, com medo de que os leitores sejam influenciados por certos elementos marginais. É como a necessidade de uma injeção de reforço da vacina contra o tétano; apenas reinocular o público com o mesmo remédio, e as pessoas ficarão imunizadas por outro ano.  A injeção de reforço geralmente inclui alguns dos seguintes elementos:
  1. A evolução é um fato. É óbvio. As coisas mudam, não mudam?
  2. Charles Darwin foi o maior cientista que já viveu. Ele escreveu o maior livro de todos na História da Ciência.
  3. Darwin estava errado sobre algumas coisas, mas todas elas foram corrigidas agora.
  4. A seleção natural é uma das leis da natureza melhor testada. Ela explica tudo.
  5. A evidência a favor da evolução é esmagadora: baleias, bactérias resistente a antibióticos, e comportamentos sexuais humanos.
  6. Nenhum cientista sério duvida da evolução.
  7. Alguns grupos marginais como malandros do Design Inteligente não entendem a evolução. Eles podem ser ignorados, como são os criacionistas.
  8. A evolução não é contra a religião. Você pode ser muito religioso e ainda assim aceitar o fato da evoluçãp.
  9. Controvérsia? Que controvérsia?
Esses pontos de discussão são tão predizíveis, eles parecem vir da mesma fonte a cada vez. Talvez o repórter consulte o site TalkOrigins ou o National Center for Science Education. O repórter sente que não precisa consultar fontes do DI verdadeiras, porque ninguém deve consultar fake ciência de grupos desacreditados. Pergunte apenas ao NCSE.
Um bom exemplo desse reportar tipo injeção de reforço é o artigo de Ker Than para o Live Science, “Darwin’s Theory of Evolution: Definition & Evidence” [A teoria da evolução de Darwin: Definição & Evidência].
A teoria da evolução por seleção natural, formulada primeiro no livro de Darwin “A origem das Espécies” em 1859, é o processo pelo qual os organismos mudam ao longo do tempo como um resultado de mudanças em características físicas ou comportamentais hereditárias. Mudanças que permitem um organismo melhor se adaptar aos seu meio ambiente o ajudará a sobreviver e ter mais descendência.
A evolução por seleção natural é uma das melhores teorias substanciadas na história da ciência, apoiada pela evidência de uma ampla variedade de disciplinas científicas, inclusive paleontologia, geologia, genética e biologia do desenvolvimento. [Ênfase adicionada].
O artigo usa todos os nove pontos de discussão mais alguns outros. É notável que a maior parte da peça não é neodarwinista, mas o Darwinismo da velha guarda: descendência comum universal por seleção natural sobre as variações:
A teoria tem dois pontos principais, disse Brian Richmond, curador da exposição da origem humana no Museu Americano de História Natural na cidade de Nova York. “Toda a vida na Terra é conectada e relacionada entre si,” e esta diversidade da vida é um produto de “modificações das populações pela seleção natural, onde algumas características foram favorecidas e o meio ambiente sobre outras”, disse ele.
Mais simplesmente dito, a teoria pode ser descrita como “descendência com modificação,” disse Briana Pobiner, uma antropóloga e educadora Museu Nacional de História Natural no Smithsonian Institution em Washington, D.C., que se especializa na pesquisa da origem humana.
A teoria é algumas vezes descrita como “sobrevivência do mais apto”, mas isso pode ser enganosa, Pobiner disse. Aqui, “aptidão” não se refere à força de um organismo ou capacidade atlética, mas antes, a capacidade de sobreviver e reproduzir.
O artigos não destaca a falta de sentido dessa formulação de seleção natural. Norman Macbeth e Tom Bethell estão entre muitos observadores que encontram uma tautologia aqui. Quando a aptidão é definida em termos de reprodução, então a reprodução, por definição, é a medida de aptidão. Tal pensamento vazio não explica nada. Não há como testar isso. Se for apto, sobrevive. Se sobreviver, é apto.
Por evidência, o Sr. Than apela para as mudanças microevolucionária  e macroevolucionária. Ele enxerga evolução no dilema comum humano de procurar namorar a pessoa certa. Mas, certamente, ele nunca iria afirmar que essas pessoas que têm exito em namorar o Sr. e a Sra. estejam evoluindo em uma nova espécie no sentido darwinista do termo.
O maior apelo evidencial do artigo é a evolução da baleia. A sequência evolutiva da baleia mostrada é comparável ao ícone “Marcha do Homem” que tem sido rotineiramente refutado pelos evolucionistas. Tudo que é necessário para explicar a sequência, o Sr. Than sugere, é a seleção natural. O que nós vemos na microevolução mudando a cor de cabelo ou tamanho pode ser extrapolada interminavelmente. O tempo é o herói do trama:
Mas a seleção natural também é capaz de muito mais. Dando tempo suficiente de mudanças acumuladas, a seleção natural pode criar novas espécies por completo, conhecida como “macroevolução.” Ela também pode transformar dinossauros em aves, mamíferos anfíbios em baleias e os ancestrais de primatas em humanos.
No vídeo Living Waters, Richard Sternberg destacou a necessidade de mutações coordenadas chegarem a tempo de fazer funcionar sistemas complexos. Seus cálculos, usando as equações padrões de genética populacional, mostram que para se conseguir apenas duas mutações coordenadas iria exigir muito mais tempo do que os evolucionistas pensam que a alegada sequência evolutiva da baleia ocorreu. Ainda assim o artigo do Live Science tece uma estória da carochinha que beira a mágica, onde as mutações coordenadas acontecem em toda a parte:
As mudanças genéticas aleatórias resultaram em pelo menos uma baleia tendo suas narinas colocada mais para trás em sua cabeça. Esses animais com essa adaptação estariam melhor adequados a um estilo de vida marinho, pois eles não precisariam emergir completamente para respirar. Tais animais teriam sido mais bem sucedido e tiveram mais descendência. Em gerações posteriores, mais mudanças genéticas ocorrera, movendo a narina ainda mais para trás na cabeça.
Outras partes do corpo das baleias primitivas também mudaram. As pernas dianteiras se tornaram nadadeiras. As pernas posteriores desapareceram. Seus corpos se tornaram mais simplificados, e elas desenvolveram solhas de caudas para melhor se moverem através da água.
Mudar uma narina mais para trás na cabeça ignora numerosas mudanças coordenadas que teriam de ocorrer para que o animal pudesse respirar, engolir, e realizar a ecolocalização. Sem a essa coordenação, o animal seria menos apto. As afirmações no segundo parágrafo são mais lamarckistas do que darwinistas. O artigo ignora todos esses problemas.
Mas a seleção natural não é o único mecanismo pelo qual os organismos evoluem, disse ela. Por exemplo, genes podem ser transferidos de uma população para outra quando os organismos migram ou emigram, um processo conhecido como fluxo gênico. E a frequência de certos genes também podem mudar aleatoriamente, que é chamado de deriva genética.
Todos os três daqueles processos, transferência lateral, fluxo gênico e deriva genética, não têm nada a ver como a evolução progressiva — o tipo de evolução que Darwin imaginara, onde um animal quadrúpede se torna uma baleia. As mudanças aleatórias em sistemas complexos degradam a  informação. O Sr. Than se equivoca aqui, fazendo da “evolução” qualquer tipo de mudança genética. Com esse tipo de definição, o Darwinista não pode perder: uma espécie em extinção se torna evidência a favor da evolução darwinista.
Brian Richmond do Museu Americano de História Natural fecha o artigo com uma predição:
A evolução é bem apoiada por muitos exemplos de mudanças em várias espécies resultando na diversidade de vida vista hoje. “Se alguém pudesse realmente demonstrar uma melhor explicação do que a evolução e seleção natural, [essa pessoa] seria o novo Darwin,” disse Richmond.
Isso implica que a comunidade científica iria imediatamente se atirar na nova alternativa com prazer. Que isso fosse verdade, porque os cientistas do design inteligente têm feito um caso que, não somente debilita o Darwinismo, mas oferece uma alternativa mais lógica e baseada em evidência. Eles têm uma vantagem de não tomar um desses pontos de discussão baseado na fé, porque muitos deles foram evolucionistas antes deles começarem a avaliar criticamente a teoria.
Recentemente o Evolution News humoristicamente aconselhou os cientistas em como escrever um artigo de biologia de primeira classe. Regras semelhantes se aplicam em escrever as notícias de ciência para a mídia popular. Elas certamente serão publicadas se o repórter seguir as mesmas regras para a Introdução, “Comece afirmando confiantemente que a evolução é verdade,” e a  Conclusão, “A evolução é verdade.”
Para aqueles que preferem uma visão mais equilibrada da evolução, eis aqui os livros mais recentes onde você terá um debate verdadeiro considerando os dois lados: Heretic, de Matti Leisola; Undeniable, de Douglas Axe; Darwin’s House of Cards, de Tom Bethell, e o Zombie Science, de Jonathan Wells.
Foto: Whale flukes, by Free-Photos, via Pixabay.

NOTA DESTE BLOGGER: Um bom exemplo tupiniquim desse reforço da vacina com medo de que os leitores sejam influenciados por certos elementos marginais é a reportagem da revista Galileu - "3 mudanças que Darwin fez em 'A Origem das Espécies' por pressão social".

O status de falência epistêmica do neodarwinismo e a natimorta Síntese Evolutiva Ampliada/Estendida lançada em agosto de 2015, que considerou en passant a questão da informação genética.

Nossos alunos e a sociedade está sendo privada desse debate sobre a falência epistemológica do Darwinismo. Pobre ciência!

O cientista David P. Barash diz que é hora de criar os "chimpahumanos"!

quinta-feira, março 08, 2018

It’s Time to Make Human-Chimp Hybrids

The humanzee is both scientifically possible and morally defensible.


MARCH 8, 2018

It is a bit of a stretch, but by no means impossible or even unlikely that a hybrid or a chimera combining a human being and a chimpanzee could be produced in a laboratory. After all, human and chimp (or bonobo) share, by most estimates, roughly 99 percent of their nuclear DNA. Granted this 1 percent difference presumably involves some key alleles, the new gene-editing tool CRISPR offers the prospect (for some, the nightmare) of adding and deleting targeted genes as desired. As a result, it is not unreasonable to foresee the possibility—eventually, perhaps, the likelihood—of producing “humanzees” or “chimphumans.” Such an individual would not be an exact equal-parts-of-each combination, but would be neither human nor chimp: rather, something in between.

If that prospect isn’t shocking enough, here is an even more controversial suggestion: Doing so would be a terrific idea.

The year 2018 is the bicentennial of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, subtitled the modern Prometheus. Haven’t we learned that Promethean hubris leads only to disaster, as did the efforts of the fictional Dr. Frankenstein? But there are also other disasters, currently ongoing, such as the grotesque abuse of nonhuman animals, facilitated by what might well be the most hurtful theologically-driven myth of all times: that human beings are discontinuous from the rest of the natural world, since we were specially created and endowed with souls, whereas “they”—all other creatures—were not.

Of course, all that we know of evolution (and by now, it’s a lot) demands otherwise, since evolution’s most fundamental take-home message is continuity. And it is in fact because of continuity—especially those shared genes—that humanzees or chimphumans could likely be produced. Moreover, I propose that the fundamental take-home message of such creation would be to drive a stake into the heart of that destructive disinformation campaign of discontinuity, of human hegemony over all other living things. There is an immense pile of evidence already demonstrating continuity, including but not limited to physiology, genetics, anatomy, embryology, and paleontology, but it is almost impossible to imagine how the most die-hard advocate of humans having a discontinuously unique biological status could continue to maintain this position if confronted with a real, functioning, human-chimp combination.1

It is also possible, however, that my suggestion is doubly fanciful, not only with respect to its biological feasibility, but also whether such a “creation” would have the impact that I propose—and hope. Thus, chimpanzees are widely known to be very similar to human beings: They make and use tools, engage in complex social behavior (including elaborate communication and long-lasting mother-offspring bonds), they laugh, grieve, and affirmatively reconcile after conflicts. They even look like us. Although such recognition has contributed to outrage about abusing chimps—as well as other primates in particular—in circus acts, laboratory experiments, and so forth, it has not generated notable resistance to hunting, imprisoning and eating other animal species, which, along with chimps themselves, are still considered by most people to be “other” and not aspects of “ourselves.” (Chimps, moreover, are enthusiastically consumed in parts of equatorial Africa, where they are a prized component of “bush meat.”)

It is at least arguable that the ultimate benefit of teaching human beings their true nature would be worth the sacrifice paid by a few unfortunates.

In his book, Less Than Human: Why We Demean, Enslave, and Exterminate Others, David Livingstone Smith examined how dehumanization goes hand-in-hand with racism and genocide. Smith revealed a long-standing pattern whereby people, despite acknowledging that other human beings appear to be human, often maintain that in their essence—whatever that means—these others continue to be less than human. It is thus entirely possible that comparably stubborn biases will persist even if our biological continuity with other living things becomes undeniable. Moreover, people are certainly known to obscure inconvenient truths: It is said that when the wife of the Bishop of Worcester heard of Darwin’s scandalous theory, she exclaimed “Descended from apes? My dear, let us hope that it isn’t true, but if it is true, let us hope that it does not become widely known!”

On the other hand, it seems equally likely that faced with individuals who are clearly intermediate between human and ape, it will become painfully obvious that a rigid distinction between the two is no longer tenable. But what about those presumably unfortunate individuals thereby produced? Neither fish nor fowl, wouldn’t they find themselves intolerably unspecified and inchoate, doomed to a living hell of biological and social indeterminacy? This is possible, but it is at least arguable that the ultimate benefit of teaching human beings their true nature would be worth the sacrifice paid by a few unfortunates. It is also arguable, moreover, that such individuals might not be so unfortunate at all. For every chimphuman or humanzee frustrated by her inability to write a poem or program a computer, there could equally be one delighted by her ability to do so while swinging from a tree branch. And—more important—for any human being currently insistent upon his or her species’ specialness, to the ultimate detriment of literally millions of other individuals of millions of other species, such a development could well be a real mind expander and paradigm buster.


Read more here/Leia mais aqui: Nautilus