Pobre Darwin, mais complexidade: nematocistos balísticos em dinoflagelados representam um novo extremo em complexidade de organelas!

terça-feira, maio 09, 2017

Microbial arms race: Ballistic “nematocysts” in dinoflagellates represent a new extreme in organelle complexity

Gregory S. Gavelis1,2,*,†, Kevin C. Wakeman3,4, Urban Tillmann5, Christina Ripken6, Satoshi Mitarai6, Maria Herranz1, Suat Özbek7, Thomas Holstein7, Patrick J. Keeling1 and Brian S. Leander1,2

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Science Advances 31 Mar 2017:

Vol. 3, no. 3, e1602552


We examine the origin of harpoon-like secretory organelles (nematocysts) in dinoflagellate protists. These ballistic organelles have been hypothesized to be homologous to similarly complex structures in animals (cnidarians); but we show, using structural, functional, and phylogenomic data, that nematocysts evolved independently in both lineages. We also recorded the first high-resolution videos of nematocyst discharge in dinoflagellates. Unexpectedly, our data suggest that different types of dinoflagellate nematocysts use two fundamentally different types of ballistic mechanisms: one type relies on a single pressurized capsule for propulsion, whereas the other type launches 11 to 15 projectiles from an arrangement similar to a Gatling gun. Despite their radical structural differences, these nematocysts share a single origin within dinoflagellates and both potentially use a contraction-based mechanism to generate ballistic force. The diversity of traits in dinoflagellate nematocysts demonstrates a stepwise route by which simple secretory structures diversified to yield elaborate subcellular weaponry.

Keywords Convergent evolution cnidocyst extrusome secretory secretion minicollagen mucocyst trichocyst red queen

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