A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization
Jesus Lozano-Fernandez, Robert Carton, Alastair R. Tanner, Mark N. Puttick, Mark Blaxter, Jakob Vinther, Jørgen Olesen, Gonzalo Giribet, Gregory D. Edgecombe, Davide Pisani
Published 20 June 2016. DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0133
Bayesian phylogeny of Panarthropoda. This tree was obtained under the CAT − GTR + G model. All nodes but one had a posterior probability of 1. bpcomp maxdiff = 0; minimum effective size = 55; maximum rel_diff = 0.2. Most silhouettes from organisms are from Phylopic (phylopic.org/).
Understanding animal terrestrialization, the process through which animals colonized the land, is crucial to clarify extant biodiversity and biological adaptation. Arthropoda (insects, spiders, centipedes and their allies) represent the largest majority of terrestrial biodiversity. Here we implemented a molecular palaeobiological approach, merging molecular and fossil evidence, to elucidate the deepest history of the terrestrial arthropods. We focused on the three independent, Palaeozoic arthropod terrestrialization events (those of Myriapoda, Hexapoda and Arachnida) and showed that a marine route to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario. Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record, Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land earlier, substantially predating trace or body fossil evidence. An estimated origin of myriapods by the Early Cambrian precedes the appearance of embryophytes and perhaps even terrestrial fungi, raising the possibility that terrestrialization had independent origins in crown-group myriapod lineages, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems.
This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’.
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