Formation of a “Pre-mouth Array” from the Extreme Anterior Domain Is Directed by Neural Crest and Wnt/PCP Signaling
Laura Jacox, Justin Chen, Alyssa Rothman, Hillary Lathrop-Marshall, Hazel Sive correspondence email
• A Xenopus pre-mouth cell array splits down the midline to surround the oral opening
• The pre-mouth array forms by convergent extension of EAD ectoderm
• EAD morphogenesis is directed by adjacent cranial neural crest
• Wnt/PCP signaling is necessary and sufficient to elicit EAD convergent extension
The mouth arises from the extreme anterior domain (EAD), a region where the ectoderm and endoderm are directly juxtaposed. Here, we identify a “pre-mouth array” in Xenopus that forms soon after the cranial neural crest has migrated to lie on either side of the EAD. Initially, EAD ectoderm comprises a wide and short epithelial mass that becomes narrow and tall with cells and nuclei changing shape, a characteristic of convergent extension. The resulting two rows of cells—the pre-mouth array—later split down the midline to surround the mouth opening. Neural crest is essential for convergent extension and likely signals to the EAD through the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Fzl7 receptor is locally required in EAD ectoderm, while Wnt11 ligand is required more globally. Indeed, heterologous cells expressing Wnt11 can elicit EAD convergent extension. The study reveals a precise cellular mechanism that positions and contributes to the future mouth.
Received: June 12, 2015; Received in revised form: May 18, 2016; Accepted: June 16, 2016; Published: July 14, 2016
© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
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