Filogenômica: desembaralhando a Árvore da Vida das aranhas

quinta-feira, março 31, 2016

Spider phylogenomics: untangling the Spider Tree of Life

Evolutionary StudiesTaxonomyZoology

Nicole L. Garrison1, Juanita Rodriguez1, Ingi Agnarsson2, Jonathan A. Coddington3, Charles E. Griswold4, Christopher A. Hamilton1, Marshal Hedin5, Kevin M. Kocot6, Joel M. Ledford7, Jason E. Bond​1

Published February 23, 2016

PubMed 26925338

Author and article information

1 Department of Biological Sciences and Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States

2 Department of Biology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States

3 Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washingtion, DC, United States

4 Arachnology, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, United States

5 Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States

6 Department of Biological Sciences and Alabama Museum of Natural History, University of Alabama—Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, AL, United States

7 Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States

Published 2016-02-23 Accepted 2016-01-31 Received 

Academic Editor Scott Edwards

Subject Areas Evolutionary Studies, Taxonomy, Zoology


Arachnida, Molecular systematics, Araneae, Spider phylogeny, Web evolution

Copyright © 2016 Garrison et al.


This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

Cite this article

Garrison NL, Rodriguez J, Agnarsson I, Coddington JA, Griswold CE, Hamilton CA, Hedin M, Kocot KM, Ledford JM, Bond JE. (2016) Spider phylogenomics: untangling the Spider Tree of Life. PeerJ 4:e1719

The authors have chosen to make the review history of this article public.


Spiders (Order Araneae) are massively abundant generalist arthropod predators that are found in nearly every ecosystem on the planet and have persisted for over 380 million years. Spiders have long served as evolutionary models for studying complex mating and web spinning behaviors, key innovation and adaptive radiation hypotheses, and have been inspiration for important theories like sexual selection by female choice. Unfortunately, past major attempts to reconstruct spider phylogeny typically employing the “usual suspect” genes have been unable to produce a well-supported phylogenetic framework for the entire order. To further resolve spider evolutionary relationships we have assembled a transcriptome-based data set comprising 70 ingroup spider taxa. Using maximum likelihood and shortcut coalescence-based approaches, we analyze eight data sets, the largest of which contains 3,398 gene regions and 696,652 amino acid sites forming the largest phylogenomic analysis of spider relationships produced to date. Contrary to long held beliefs that the orb web is the crowning achievement of spider evolution, ancestral state reconstructions of web type support a phylogenetically ancient origin of the orb web, and diversification analyses show that the mostly ground-dwelling, web-less RTA clade diversified faster than orb weavers. Consistent with molecular dating estimates we report herein, this may reflect a major increase in biomass of non-flying insects during the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution 125–90 million years ago favoring diversification of spiders that feed on cursorial rather than flying prey. Our results also have major implications for our understanding of spider systematics. Phylogenomic analyses corroborate several well-accepted high level groupings: Opisthothele, Mygalomorphae, Atypoidina, Avicularoidea, Theraphosoidina, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae, Araneoidea, the RTA clade, Dionycha and the Lycosoidea. Alternatively, our results challenge the monophyly of Eresoidea, Orbiculariae, and Deinopoidea. The composition of the major paleocribellate and neocribellate clades, the basal divisions of Araneomorphae, appear to be falsified. Traditional Haplogynae is in need of revision, as our findings appear to support the newly conceived concept of Synspermiata. The sister pairing of filistatids with hypochilids implies that some peculiar features of each family may in fact be synapomorphic for the pair. Leptonetids now are seen as a possible sister group to the Entelegynae, illustrating possible intermediates in the evolution of the more complex entelegyne genitalic condition, spinning organs and respiratory organs.

Cite this as

Garrison NL, Rodriguez J, Agnarsson I, Coddington JA, Griswold CE, Hamilton CA, Hedin M, Kocot KM, Ledford JM, Bond JE. (2016) Spider phylogenomics: untangling the Spider Tree of Life. PeerJ 4:e1719