As maiores estruturas cósmicas 'grandes demais' para as atuais teorias

quarta-feira, junho 29, 2011

Largest cosmic structures 'too big' for theories

20:11 21 June 2011 by Stephen Battersby

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Space is festooned with vast "hyperclusters" of galaxies, a new cosmic map suggests. It could mean that gravity or dark energy – or perhaps something completely unknown – is behaving very strangely indeed.

Galaxies, clusters, and superclusters - mere local details? (Image: Springel et al./Virgo Consortium)

We know that the universe was smooth just after its birth. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), the light emitted 370,000 years after the big bang, reveal only very slight variations in density from place to place. Gravity then took hold and amplified these variations into today's galaxies and galaxy clusters, which in turn are arranged into big strings and knots called superclusters, with relatively empty voids in between.

On even larger scales, though, cosmological models say that the expansion of the universe should trump the clumping effect of gravity. That means there should be very little structure on scales larger than a few hundred million light years across.

But the universe, it seems, did not get the memo. Shaun Thomas of University College London (UCL), and colleagues have found aggregations of galaxies stretching for more than 3 billion light years. The hyperclusters are not very sharply defined, with only a couple of per cent variation in density from place to place, but even that density contrast is twice what theory predicts.

"This is a challenging result for the standard cosmological models," says Francesco Sylos Labini of the University of Rome, Italy, who was not involved in the work.

Read more here/Leia mais aqui: New Scientist